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    Citrus

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    Young
    Trees
    Dormancy
    Spring Flush;
    Bloom
    Fruit
    Development
    Harvest

    Nitrogen (N)   

     

    Soil Test

    Leaf Analysis

     N to Young Trees

      Soil Applied N

    Foliar N

    X

    Phosphorus (P2O5)   

     

    Soil Test

    Leaf Analysis

    P to Young Trees

    Soil Applied P

    Foliar P

    X

    Potassium (K2O)   

     

    Soil Test

    Leaf Analysis

    K to Young Trees

      Soil Applied K

    Foliar K

    X


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    References:


    Nitrogen

    1. Albrigo, L.G., 1999. Effects of foliar applications of urea or Nutri-Phite on flowering and yields of Valencia orange trees. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 112, 1-4.
    2. Albrigo, L.G., 2002. Foliar uptake of N-P-K sources and urea biuret tolerance in citrus. Acta Horticulturae 594, 627-633.
    3. Ali, A.G., Lovatt, C.J., 1994. Winter application of low-biuret urea to the foliage of ‘Washington’ navel oranges increased yield. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 119, 1144-1150.
    4. Alva, A.K., Paramasivam, S., 1998. Nitrogen management for high yield and quality of citrus in sandy soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 62, 1335-1342.
    5. Alva, A.K., Paramasivam, S., Graham, W.D., Wheaton, T.A., 2003. Best nitrogen and irrigation management practices for citrus production in sandy soils. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 143, 139-154.
    6. Alva, A.K., Paramasivam, S., Obreza, T.A., Schumann, A.W., 2006. Nitrogen best management practice for citrus trees I. Fruit yield, quality, and leaf nutritional status. Scientia Horticulturae 107, 233-244.
    7. Arpaia, M.L., Lund, L.J., 2003. Nitrogen management in citrus under low volume irrigation. FREP Final Report.
    8. Bondada, B.R., Syvertsen, J.P., Albrigo, L.G., 2001. Urea nitrogen uptake by citrus leaves. HortScience 36, 1061–1065.
    9. Cantarella, H., Mattos Jr., D., Quaggio, J.A., Rigolin, A.T., 2003. Fruit yield of Valencia sweet orange fertilized with different N sources and the loss of applied N. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 67, 215–223.
    10. Chapman, H.D., 1968. The mineral nutrition of citrus. In: Reuther, W., Batchelor, L.D., Webber, H.J. (Eds.). The Citrus Industry, Volume II. University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences. pp. 127-289.
    11. Crowley, D., 2012. Macronutrients: Their role in citrus production. Presentation held at the California Citrus Conference, Porterville, October 10-11, 2012.
    12. Dasberg, S., 1987. Nitrogen fertilization in citrus orchards. Plant and Soil 100, 1-9.
    13. Embleton, T.W., Jones, W.W., 1974. Foliar-applied nitrogen for citrus fertilization. Journal of Environmental Quality 3, 388-391.
    14. Embleton, T.W., Jones, W.W., Platt, R.G., Burns, R.M., 1974. Potassium nutrition and deficiency in citrus. California Agriculture 28(8), 6-8.
    15. Embleton, T.W., Jones, W.W., Platt, R.G., 1976. Leaf analysis as a guide to citrus fertilization. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.). Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 4-9.
    16. Fake, C., 2004. Fertilizing citrus in the foothills. University of California Cooperative Extension Placer & Nevada Counties January 2004.
    17. Feigenbaum, S., Bielorai, H., Erner, Y., Dasberg, S., 1987. The fate of 15N labeled nitrogen applied to mature citrus trees. Plant and Soil 97, 179-187.
    18. He, Z.L., Calvert, D.V., Alva, A.K., Banks, D.J., Li, Y.C., 2003. Thresholds for leaf nitrogen in optimum fruit production and quality in grapefruit. Soil Science Society of America Journal 67, 583-588.
    19. Jones, W.W., 1954. Biuret toxicity of urea foliage sprays on citrus. Science 120, 499-500.
    20. Jones, W.W., Embleton, T.W., Goodall, G.E., 1955. Yellow tip of citrus application and biuret content of urea affect extent of leaf tip chlorosis. California Agriculture 9(12), 4.
    21. Kato, T., Kubota, S., Bambang, S., 1982. Uptake of 15N-nitrate by citrus trees in winter and repartitioning in spring. Journal of the Japanese Society of Horticultural Science 50, 421-426.

    22. TOP OF PAGE

    23. Kusakabe, A., White, S.A., Walworth, J.L., Wright, G.C., Thompson, T.L., 2006. Response of microsprinkler-irrigated navel oranges to fertigated nitrogen rate and frequency. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70, 1623–1628.
    24. Labanauskas, C.K., Handy, M.F., 1972. Nutrient removal by Valencia orange fruit from citrus orchards in California. California Agriculture 26(12), 3-4.
    25. Legaz, F., Primo-Millo, E., Primo-Yufera, E.X., Gil, C., 1981. Dynamics of 15N labeled nitrogen nutrients in Valencia orange trees. International Society of Citriculture 2, 575-582.
    26. Lovatt, C.J., 1999. Timing citrus and avocado foliar nutrient applications to increase fruit set and size. HortTechnology 9, 607-612.
    27. Lovatt, C.J., 2013. Properly timing foliar-applied fertilizers increases efficacy: A review and update on timing foliar nutrient applications to citrus and avocado. HortTechnology 23, 536-541.
    28. Lovatt, C.J., 2014. Nutrient deficiency and correction. In: Ferguson, L., Grafton-Cardwell, E.E. (Eds.). Citrus Production Manual. pp. 161-182.
    29. Martinez-Alcantara, B., Quinones, A., Forner-Giner, M. A., Iglesias, D.J., Primo-Millo, E,, Legaz, F., 2012. Impact of fertilizer-water management on nitrogen use efficiency and potential nitrate leaching in citrus trees. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 58, 659-669.
    30. Menino, M.R., Carranca, C., de Varennes, A., 2007. Distribution and remobilization of nitrogen in young non-bearing orange trees grown under Mediterranean conditions, Journal of Plant Nutrition, 30, 1083-1096.
    31. Mikkelsen, R.L., 2007. Biuret in urea fertilizers. Better Crops 91(3), 6-7.
    32. Morgan, K.T., Scholberg, J.M.S., Obreza, T.A., Wheaton, T.A., 2006. Size, biomass, and nitrogen relationships with sweet orange tree growth. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science 131, 149-156.
    33. Morgan, K.T., Obreza, T.A., Scholberg, J.M.S., 2007. Orange tree fibrous root length distribution in space and time. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science 132, 262–269.
    34. Morgan, K.T., Wheaton, T.A., Castle, W.S., Parson, L.R., 2009. Response of young and maturing citrus trees grown on a sandy soil to irrigation scheduling, nitrogen fertilizer rate, and nitrogen application method. HortScience 44, 145-150.
    35. Morgan, K., Scholberg, J., Obreza, T., Wheaton, T., 2012. Seasonal nitrogen budgets of mature citrus trees on a sandy entisol. Journal of Plant Nutrition 35, 2009-2023.
    36. Niederholzer, F., 2011. a href="http://thealmonddoctor.com/general/using-urea-efficiently/" target="_new">Using urea efficiently.
    37. Niederholzer, F., 2012. a href="http://cesutter.ucanr.edu/news_204522/Pomology_Notes/?newsitem=42838" target="_new">Nitrogen use efficiency in almonds. Sacramento Valley Almond News, April 2012.
    38. Obreza, T.A., Zekri, M., Futch, S.H., 2008. General soil fertility and citrus tree nutrition. In: Obreza, T.A., Morgan, K.T. (Eds.). Nutrition of Florida Citrus Trees. 2nd Edition. University of Florida IFAS Extension. pp. 16-23.
    39. Obreza, T.A., Morgan, K.T., Albrigo, L.G., Boman, B.J., 2008. Recommended fertilizer rates and timing. In: Obreza, T.A., Morgan, K.T. (Eds.). Nutrition of Florida Citrus Trees. 2nd Edition. University of Florida IFAS Extension. pp. 48-59.
    40. Paramasivam, S., Alva, A.K., Fares, A., Sajwan, K.S., 2001. Estimation of nitrate leaching in an Entisol under optimum citrus production. Soil Science Society of America Journal 65, 914–921.
    41. Quinones, A., Martinez-Alcantara, B., Legaz, F., 2007. Influence of irrigation system and fertilization management on seasonal distribution of N in the soil profile and on N-uptake by citrus trees. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 122, 399–409.
    42. Rabe, E., 1994. Yield benefits associated with pre-blossom low-biuret urea sprays on Citrus spp. Journal of Horticultural Science 69, 495-500.
    43. Schwankl, L.J., 2014. Fertigation. In: Ferguson, L., Grafton-Cardwell, E.E. (Eds.). Citrus Production Manual. pp. 197-204.
    44. Weinert, T.L., Thompson, T.L., White, S.A., Maurer, M.A., 2002. Nitrogen fertigation of young navel oranges: Growth, N status, and uptake of fertilizer N. HortScience 37, 334-337.
    45. Zasoski, R.J., 1994. Nitrogen efficiency in drip irrigated almonds. FREP Final Report.
    46. Zheng, Y., Khuong, T., Lovatt, C.J., Faber, B.A., 2013. Comparison of different foliar fertilization strategies on yield, fruit size and quality of ‘Nules’ Clementine mandarin. Acta Horticulturae 984, 247–255.
    TOP OF PAGE

    Phosphorus

    1. Albrigo, L.G., 1999. Effects of foliar applications of urea or Nutri-Phite on flowering and yields of Valencia orange trees. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 112, 1-4.
    2. Bingham, F.T., Martin, J.P., 1955. Minor nutrients of citrus. California Agriculture 9(9), 4-5.
    3. Chapman, H.D., 1960. Leaf and soil analyses as guide for citrus fertilizer practices in southern California orchards. California Agriculture 14(10), 13-14.
    4. Chapman, H.D., 1968. The mineral nutrition of citrus. In: Reuther, W., Batchelor, L.D., Webber, H.J. (Eds.). The Citrus Industry, Volume II. University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences. pp. 127-289.
    5. Chapman, H.D., Fullmer, F., 1951. Leaf analysis of citrus. California Agriculture 5(9), 6.
    6. Crowley, D., 2012. Macronutrients: Their role in citrus production. Presentation held at the California Citrus Conference, Porterville, October 10-11, 2012.
    7. Embleton, T.W., Jones, W.W., 1974. Foliar-applied nitrogen for citrus fertilization. Journal of Environmental Quality 3, 388-391.
    8. Embleton, T.W., Jones, W.W., Platt, R.G., Burns, R.M., 1974. Potassium nutrition and deficiency in citrus. California Agriculture 28(8), 6-8.
    9. Embleton, T.W., Jones, W.W., Platt, R.G., 1976. Leaf analysis as a guide to citrus fertilization. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.). Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 4-9.
    10. Faber, B., 2013. Citrus and avocado leaf analysis. Topics in subtropics. ANR blogs.
    11. Fulton, A., 2010. Understanding and applying information from a soil test: Part 2 – NPK.
    12. Haas, A.R.C., 1936. Phosphorus deficiency in citrus. Soil Science 42(2), 93-105.
    13. Labanauskas, C.K., Handy, M.F., 1972. Nutrient removal by Valencia orange fruit from citrus orchards in California. California Agriculture 26(12), 3-4.
    14. Lovatt, C.J., 1999. Timing citrus and avocado foliar nutrient applications to increase fruit set and size. HortTechnology 9, 607-612.
    15. Lovatt, C.J., 2014. Nutrient deficiency and correction. In: Ferguson, L., Grafton-Cardwell, E.E. (Eds.). Citrus Production Manual. pp. 161-182.
    16. Morgan, K.T., Obreza, T.A., Scholberg, J.M.S., 2007. Orange tree fibrous root length distribution in space and time. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science 132, 262-269.
    17. Noling, J.W., 2011. Citrus root growth and soil pest management practices. University of Florida IFAS Extension.
    18. Obreza, T.A., Zekri, M., Futch, S.H., 2008. General soil fertility and citrus tree nutrition. In: Obreza, T.A., Morgan, K.T. (Eds.). Nutrition of Florida Citrus Trees. 2nd Edition. University of Florida IFAS Extension. pp. 16-23.
    19. Obreza, T.A., Zekri, M., Hanlon, E.A., 2008. Soil and leaf tissue testing. In: Obreza, T.A., Morgan, K.T. (Eds.). Nutrition of Florida Citrus Trees. 2nd Edition. University of Florida IFAS Extension. pp. 24-32.
    20. Obreza, T.A., Morgan, K.T., Albrigo, L.G., Boman, B.J., 2008. Recommended fertilizer rates and timing. In: Obreza, T.A., Morgan, K.T. (Eds.). Nutrition of Florida Citrus Trees. 2nd Edition. University of Florida IFAS Extension. pp. 48-59.
    21. Sanden, B., Fullton, A., Ferguson, L., 2014. Soil and water analysis and amendment. In: Ferguson, L., Grafton-Cardwell, E.E. (Eds.). Citrus Production Manual. pp. 131-146.
    22. Schwankl, L.J., 2014. Fertigation. In: Ferguson, L., Grafton-Cardwell, E.E. (Eds.). Citrus Production Manual. pp. 197-204.
    23. Zekri, M., Obreza, T., 2013. Phosphorus (P) for citrus trees. University of Florida IFAS Extension.
    TOP OF PAGE

    Potassium

    1. Albrigo, L.G., 1999. Effects of foliar applications of urea or Nutri-Phite on flowering and yields of Valencia orange trees. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 112, 1-4.
    2. Boman, B., Obreza, T., 2012. Fertigation nutrient sources and application considerations for citrus. University of Florida IFAS Extension.
    3. Calvert, D.V., Smith, R.C., 1972. Correction of potassium deficiency of citrus with KNO3 sprays. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 20, 659-661.
    4. Chapman, H.D., 1960. Leaf and soil analyses as guide for citrus fertilizer practices in southern California orchards. California Agriculture 14(10), 13-14.
    5. Chapman, H.D., 1968. The mineral nutrition of citrus. In: Reuther, W., Batchelor, L.D., Webber, H.J. (Eds.). The Citrus Industry, Volume II. University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences. pp. 127-289.
    6. Chapman, H.D., Fullmer, F., 1951. Leaf analysis of citrus. California Agriculture 5(9), 6.
    7. Crowley, D., 2012. Macronutrients: Their role in citrus production. Presentation held at the California Citrus Conference, Porterville, October 10-11, 2012.
    8. Embleton, T.W., Jones, W.W., 1974. Foliar-applied nitrogen for citrus fertilization. Journal of Environmental Quality 3, 388-391.
    9. Embleton, T.W., Jones, W.W., Platt, R.G., Burns, R.M., 1974. Potassium nutrition and deficiency in citrus. California Agriculture 28(8), 6-8.
    10. Embleton, T.W., Jones, W.W., Platt, R.G., 1976. Leaf analysis as a guide to citrus fertilization. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.). Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 4-9.
    11. Faber, B., 2013. Citrus and avocado leaf analysis. Topics in subtropics. ANR blogs.
    12. Fulton, A., 2010. Understanding and applying information from a soil test: Part 2 – NPK.
    13. Labanauskas, C.K., Handy, M.F., 1972. Nutrient removal by Valencia orange fruit from citrus orchards in California. California Agriculture 26(12), 3-4.
    14. Lovatt, C.J., 1999. Timing citrus and avocado foliar nutrient applications to increase fruit set and size. HortTechnology 9, 607-612.
    15. Lovatt, C.J., 2014. Nutrient deficiency and correction. In: Ferguson, L., Grafton-Cardwell, E.E. (Eds.). Citrus Production Manual. pp. 161-182.
    16. Morgan, K.T., Obreza, T.A., Scholberg, J.M.S., 2007. Orange tree fibrous root length distribution in space and time. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science 132, 262-269.
    17. Noling, J.W., 2011. Citrus root growth and soil pest management practices. University of Florida IFAS Extension.
    18. Obreza, T.A., Zekri, M., Futch, S.H., 2008. General soil fertility and citrus tree nutrition. In: Obreza, T.A., Morgan, K.T. (Eds.). Nutrition of Florida Citrus Trees. 2nd Edition. University of Florida IFAS Extension. pp. 16-23.
    19. Obreza, T.A., Morgan, K.T., Albrigo, L.G., Boman, B.J., 2008. Recommended fertilizer rates and timing. In: Obreza, T.A., Morgan, K.T. (Eds.). Nutrition of Florida Citrus Trees. 2nd Edition. University of Florida IFAS Extension. pp. 48-59.
    20. Parker, E.R., Jones, W.W., 1950. Fruit size and leaf composition concentration of potassium in orange leaves found to be associated with fruit size. California Agriculture 4(5), 4.
    21. Sanden, B., Fullton, A., Ferguson, L., 2014. Soil and water analysis and amendment. In: Ferguson, L., Grafton-Cardwell, E.E. (Eds.). Citrus Production Manual. pp. 131-146.
    22. Schwankl, L.J., 2014. Fertigation. In: Ferguson, L., Grafton-Cardwell, E.E. (Eds.). Citrus Production Manual. pp. 197-204.
    23. Spiegel-Roy, P., Goldschmidt, E.E., 1996. The Biology of Citrus. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK.
    24. Zekri, M., Obreza, T., 2013. Potassium (K) for citrus trees. University of Florida IFAS Extension.
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