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    Corn

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    Preplant
    Sowing
    5-Leaf Stage
    12-Leaf Stage
    Silking /
    Tasseling
    Maturity

    Nitrogen (N)   

     

    Soil Test

    Plant Analysis

     Preplant N

    Starter N

      Sidedress N

    Foliar N

    X

    Phosphorus (P2O5)   

     

    Soil Test

    Plant Analysis

    Preplant P

    Starter P

      Sidedress P

    Foliar P

    X

    Potassium (K2O)   

     

    Soil Test

    Plant Analysis

    Preplant K

    Starter K

      Sidedress K

    Foliar K

    X


    TOP OF PAGE

    References:


    Nitrogen

    1. Alley, M.M., Martz Jr., M.E., Davis, P.H., Hammons, J.L., 2009. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization of corn. Virginia Cooperative Extension. Publication 424-027.
    2. Allred, S.E., Ohlrogge, A.J., 1964. Principles of nutrient uptake from fertilizer bands. VI. Germination and emergence of corn as affected by ammonia and ammonium phosphate. Agronomy Journal 56, 309-313.
    3. Arjal, R.D., Prato, J.D., Peterson, M.L., 1978. Response of corn to fertilizer, plant population, and planting date. California Agriculture 32(3), 14-15.
    4. Ball-Coelho, B.R., Roy, R.C., 1999. Enhanced ammonium sources to reduce nitrate leaching. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 54, 73–80.
    5. Beegle, D.B., Durst, P.T., 2003. Nitrogen fertilization of corn. Penn State Extension. Agronomy Facts 12.
    6. Beegle, D., Rotz, J., 2009. Late season cornstalk nitrate test. Penn State Extension. Agronomy Facts 70.
    7. Beegle, D.B., Roth, G.W, Lingenfelter, D.D., 2003. Starter fertilizer. Penn State Extension. Agronomy Facts 51.
    8. Below, F.E., Lambert, R.J., Hageman, R.H., 1984. Foliar applications of nutrients on maize. I. Yield and N content of grain and stover. Agronomy Journal 76, 773-777.
    9. Binder, D.L., Sander, D.H., Walters, D.T., 2000. Maize response to time of nitrogen application as affected by level of nitrogen deficiency. Agronomy Journal 92, 1228–1236.
    10. Binford, G.D., Blackmer, A.M., El-Hout, N.M., 1990. Tissue test for excess nitrogen during corn production. Agronomy Journal 82, 124-129.
    11. Binford, G.D., Blackmer, A.M., Meese, E.G., 1992. Optimal concentrations of nitrate in cornstalks at maturity. Agronomy Journal 84, 881-887.
    12. Blackmer, A.M., Voss, R.D., Mallarino, A.P., 1997. Nitrogen fertilizer recommendations for corn in Iowa. Iowa State University Extension.
    13. Blue, W.G., Eno, C.F., 1954. Distribution and retention of anhydrous ammonia in sandy soils. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 18, 420-424.
    14. Brittan, K., 2004. 2003 Yolo/Solano/Sacramento field corn production. University of California Cooperative Extension.
    15. Brouder, S.M., Mengel, D.B., 2003. The presidedess soil nitrate test for improving N management in corn. Purdue University Cooperate Extension Service. Agronomy Guide.
    16. Brown, B., Hart, J., Horneck, D., Moore, A., 2010. Nutrient management for field corn silage and grain in the Inland Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Extension. Publication PNW 615.
    17. Bundy, L.G., 1998. Corn fertilization. University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension. Publication A3340.
    18. Ciampitti, I.A., Camberato, J.J., Murrell, S.T., Vyn, T.J., 2013. Maize nutrient accumulation and partitioning in response to plant density and nitrogen rate: I. Macronutrients. Agronomy Journal 105, 783–795.
    19. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
    20. Davis, J.G., Westfall, D.G., 2009. Fertilizing corn. Colorado State University Extension. Fact Sheet No. 0.538.

    21. TOP OF PAGE

    22. Doerge, T.A., Roth, R.L., Gardner, B.R., 1991. Nitrogen fertilizer management in Arizona. University of Arizona.
    23. Duncan, W.G., Ohlrogge, A.J., 1958. Principles of nutrient uptake from fertilizer bands. II. Root development in the band. Agronomy Journal 50, 605-608.
    24. Evanylo, G.K., Alley, M.M., 1998. Nitrogen soil testing for corn in Virginia. Virginia Cooperative Extension. Publication 418-016.
    25. Fernández, F.G., Hoeft, R.G., Randall, G.W., Vetsch, J., Greer, K., Nafziger, E.D., Villamil, M.B., 2010. Apparent nitrogen recovery from fall-applied ammoniated phosphates and ammonium sulfate fertilizers. Agronomy Journal 102, 1674-1681.
    26. Fernández, F.G., Nafziger, E.D., Ebelhar, S.A., Hoeft, R.G., 2012. Managing nitrogen. University of Illinois Extension & Outreach. Illinois Agronomy Handbook.
    27. Fernández, F.G., Hoeft, R.G., 2012. Managing soil pH and crop nutrients. University of Illinois Extension & Outreach Illinois. Agronomy Handbook.
    28. Fox, R.H., Piekielek, W.P., Macneal, K.E., 2001. Comparison of late-season diagnostic tests for predicting nitrogen status of corn. Agronomy Journal 93, 590–597.
    29. Gagnon, B., Ziadi, N., 2010. Grain corn and soil nitrogen responses to sidedress nitrogen sources and applications. Agronomy Journal 102, 1014–1022.
    30. Gardner, E.H., Hall., L.F., Pumphrey, F.V., 2000. Field corn - Eastern Oregon, east of Cascades. Oregon State University Extension Service. Fertilizer Guide.
    31. Gascho, G.J., Hook, J.E., 1984. Nitrogen management for irrigated corn grown on sand. Journal of Fertilizer Issues 1, 1-6.
    32. Geisseler, D., Lazicki, P.A., Pettygrove G.S., Ludwig, B., Bachand, P.A.M., Horwath W.R., 2012. Nitrogen dynamics in irrigated forage systems fertilized with liquid dairy manure. Agronomy Journal 104, 897-907.
    33. Guillard, K., Morris, T.F., Kopp, K.L., 1999. The pre-sidedress soil nitrate test and nitrate leaching from corn. Journal of Environmental Quality 28, 1845-1852.
    34. Hansen, D., Binford, G., Sims, T., 2004. End-of-season corn stalk nitrate testing to optimize nitrogen management. University of Delaware Cooperative Extension.
    35. Hart, J., Sullivan, D., Gamroth, M., Downing, T., Peters, A., 2009. Silage corn (Western Oregon). Oregon State University Extension Service. Nutrient Management Guide.
    36. Ippersiel, D., Alli, I., MacKenzie, A.F., Mehuys G.R., 1989. Nitrogen distribution, yield, and quality of silage corn after foliar nitrogen fertilization. Agronomy Journal 81, 783-786.
    37. Jones Jr., J.B., 1998. Field sampling procedures for conducting a plant analysis. In: Kalra, Y.P. (Ed.). Handbook of Reference Methods for Plant Analysis. CRC Press, Boca Raton. pp. 25-35.
    38. Karlen, D.L., Sadler, E.J., Camp, C.R., 1987. Dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium accumulation rates by corn on Norfolk Loamy Sand. Agronomy Journal 79, 649-656.
    39. Ketterings, Q., Albrecht, G., Czymmek, K., Stockin, K., 2012. Pre-sidedress nitrate test. Cornell University Cooperative Extension. Agronomy Fact Sheet 3.
    40. Kyveryga, P.M., Blackmer, T.M., 2012. On-farm evaluations to calibrate tools for estimating late-season nitrogen status of corn. Agronomy Journal 104, 1284–1294.
    41. Larson, E., Oldham, L., 2008. Corn fertilization. Mississippi State University Extension Service. Information Sheet 864.

    42. TOP OF PAGE

    43. Lawrence, J., Ketterings, Q., Godwin, G., Czymmek, K., Renuka, R., 2012. Corn stalk nitrate test (CSNT). Cornell University Cooperative Extension. Agronomy Fact Sheet 31.
    44. Lehrsch, G.A., Sojka, R.E., Westermann, D.T., 2000. Nitrogen placement, row spacing, and furrow irrigation water positioning effects on corn yield. Agronomy Journal 92, 1266–1275.
    45. Leikam, D.F., Lamond, R.E., Mengel, D.B., 2003. Soil test interpretations and fertilizer recommendations. Kansas State University.
    46. Leikam, D., Mengel, D., 2007. Nutrient management. In: Kansas State University (Ed). Corn Production Handbook.
    47. Ling, F., Silberbush, M., 2002. Response of maize to foliar vs. soil application of nitrogen–phosphorus–potassium fertilizers. Journal of Plant Nutrition 25, 2333-2342.
    48. Ma, B.L., Li, M., Dwyer, L.M., Stewart, G., 2004. Effect of in-season application methods of fertilizer nitrogen on grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency in maize. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 84, 169–176.
    49. Maddux, L.D., Raczkowski, C.W., Kissel, D.E., Barnes, P.L., 1991. Broadcast and subsurface-banded urea nitrogen in urea ammonium nitrate applied to corn. Soil Science Society of America Journal 55, 264-267.
    50. Magdoff, F.R., Ross, D., Amadon, J., 1984. A soil test for nitrogen availability to corn. Soil Science Society of America Journal 48, 1301-1304.
    51. Marx, E.S., Christensen, N.W., Hart, J., Gangwer, M., Cogger, C.G., Bary, A.I., 1997. The pre-sidedress soil nitrate test (PSNT) for Western Oregon and Western Washington. Oregon State University Extension Service. Nutrient Management Guide.
    52. Mascagni Jr., H.J., Boquet, D.J., 1996. Starter fertilizer and planting date effects on corn rotated with cotton. Agronomy Journal 88, 975-982.
    53. Miller, M.H., Ohlrogge, A.J., 1958. Principles of nutrient uptake from fertilizer bands 1. Effect of placement of nitrogen fertilizer on the uptake of band-placed phosphorus at different soil phosphorus levels. Agronomy Journal 50, 95-97.
    54. Mortvedt, J.J., 1976. Band fertilizer placement – How much and how close? Fertilizer Solutions 20, 90-96.
    55. Murdock, L.W., Schwab, G.J., 2004. Corn stalk nitrate test. University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension.
    56. Nelson, K.A., Scharf, P.C., Stevens, W.E., Burdick, B.A., 2011. Rescue nitrogen applications for corn. Soil Science Society of America Journal 75, 143-151.
    57. Neumann, P.M., 1979. Rapid evaluation of foliar fertilizer-induced damage: N, P, K, S on corn. Agronomy Journal 71, 598-602.
    58. Neumann, P.M., Ehrenreich, Y., Golab, Z., 1981. Foliar fertilizer damage to corn leaves: Relation to cuticular penetration. Agronomy Journal 73, 979-982.
    59. Power, J.F., Alessi, J., Reichman, G.A., Grimes, D.L., 1972. Effect of nitrogen source on corn and bromegrass production, soil pH, and inorganic soil nitrogen. Agronomy Journal 64, 341-344.
    60. Randall, G.W., Hoeft, R.G., 1988. Placement methods for improved efficiency of P and K fertilizers: A review. Journal of Production Agriculture 1, 70-78.
    61. Rehm, G.W., 1986. Effect of phosphorus placement on early growth, yield and phosphorus absorption by irrigated corn. Journal of Fertilizer Issues, 3(1), 12-17.
    62. Rehm, G., 2005. The basal stalk nitrate test for corn. Minnesota Crop eNews.

    63. TOP OF PAGE

    64. Rehm, G.W., Lamb, J.A., 2009. Corn response to fluid fertilizers placed near the seed at planting. Soil Science Society of America Journal 73, 1427-1434.
    65. Ristow, P., Ketterings, Q., Lawrence, J., Czymmek, K., 2007. N guidelines for corn. Cornell University Cooperative Extension. Agronomy Fact Sheet 35.
    66. Roberts, R.K., Howard, D.D., Gerloff, D.C., Johnson, L.A., 1995. Economic analysis of nitrogen sources and placement methods in no-tillage corn. Journal of Production Agriculture 8, 575-580.
    67. Samborski, S.M., Tremblay N., Fallon E., 2009. Strategies to make use of plant sensors-based diagnostic information for nitrogen recommendations. Agronomy Journal 101, 800-816.
    68. Savoy, H.J., 2009. The pre-sidedress nitrate-N soil test (PSNT) for nitrogen management in corn production systems of Tennessee. The University of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service.
    69. Scharf, P.C., 2001. Soil and plant tests to predict optimum nitrogen rates for corn. Journal of Plant Nutrition 24, 805-826.
    70. Shapiro, C.A., DeLoughery, R.L., 2001. The corn stalk nitrate test. University of Nebraska Extension. Publication NF01-491.
    71. Shapiro, C.A., Wortmann, C.S., Walters, D.T., 2008. Fertilizer suggestions for corn. University of Nebraska Extension. Publication EC 117.
    72. Sims, J.T., Boswell, F.C., 1980. The influence of organic wastes and inorganic nitrogen sources on soil nitrogen, yield, and elemental composition of corn. Journal of Environmental Quality 9, 512-518.
    73. Sommer, S.G., Christensen, B.T., 1992. Ammonia volatilization after injection of anhydrous ammonia into arable soils of different moisture levels. Plant and Soil 142, 143-146.
    74. Spellman, D.E., Rongni, A., Westfall, D.G., Waskom, R.M., Soltanpour, P.N., 1996. Pre-sidedress nitrate soil testing to manage nitrogen fertility in irrigated corn in a semi-arid environment. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 27, 561-574.
    75. Stanley, F.A., Smith, G.E., 1956. Effect of soil moisture and depth of application on retention of anhydrous ammonia. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 20, 557-561.
    76. Stewart, M., 2008. Fertilizer sources for irrigated corn. In: Stewart, W.M., Gordon, W.B. (Eds.). Fertilizing for Irrigated Corn - Guide to Best Management Practices. International Plant Nutrition Institute. pp. 2.1-2.6.
    77. Tomar, J.S., MacKenzie, A.F., Mehuys, G.R., Alli, I., 1988. Corn growth with foliar nitrogen, soil-applied nitrogen, and legume intercrops. Agronomy Journal 80, 802-807.
    78. University of Delaware, 2003. Grain Corn.
    79. Vitosh, M.L., Johnson, J.W., Mengel, D.B., 1995. Tri-State fertilizer recommendations for corn, soybeans, wheat & alfalfa. Michigan State University, The Ohio State University, Purdue University. Extension Bulletin E-2567.
    80. Voss, R.D., 1993. Corn. In: Bennett, W.F. (Ed.). Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Crop Plants. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. pp. 11-14.
    81. Wiese, R.A., 1978. Starter program requires less fertilizer. Fertilizer Solutions 22 (Jan-Feb), 101-103.
    82. Zebarth, B.J., Paul, J.W., Younie, M., Bittman, S., 2001. Fertilizer nitrogen recommendations for silage corn in high-fertility environment based on pre-sidedress soil nitrate test. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 32, 2721-2739.
    TOP OF PAGE

    Phosphorus

    1. Allred, S.E., Ohlrogge, A.J., 1964. Principles of nutrient uptake from fertilizer bands. VI. Germination and emergence of corn as affected by ammonia and ammonium phosphate. Agronomy Journal 56, 309-313.
    2. Beegle, D.B., Durst, P.T., 2003. Nitrogen fertilization of corn. Penn State Extension. Agronomy Facts 12.
    3. Below, F.E., Lambert, R.J., Hageman, R.H., 1984. Foliar applications of nutrients on maize. I. Yield and N content of grain and stover. Agronomy Journal 76, 773-777.
    4. Brown, B., Hart, J., Horneck, D., Moore, A., 2010. Nutrient management for field corn silage and grain in the Inland Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Extension. Publication PNW 615.
    5. Bundy, L.G., 1998. Corn fertilization. University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension. Publication A3340.
    6. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
    7. Davis, J.G., Westfall, D.G., 2009. Fertilizing corn. Colorado State University Extension. Fact Sheet No. 0.538.
    8. Dick, R.P., Tabatabai, M.A., 1987. Polyphosphates as sources of phosphorus for plants. Fertilizer Research 12, 107-118.
    9. Duncan, W.G., Ohlrogge, A.J., 1958. Principles of nutrient uptake from fertilizer bands. II. Root development in the band. Agronomy Journal 50, 605-608.
    10. Girma, K., Martin, K.L., Freeman, K.W., Mosali, J., Teal, R.K., Raun, W.R., Moges, S.M., Arnall, D.B., 2007. Determination of optimum rate and growth stage for foliar-applied phosphorus in corn. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 38, 1137-1154.
    11. Giskin, M., Efron, Y., 1986. Planting date and foliar fertilization of corn grown for silage and grain under limited moisture. Agronomy Journal 78, 426-429.
    12. Heckman, J.R., Sims, J.T., Beegle, D.B., Coale, F.J., Herbert, S.J., Bruulsema, T.W., Bamka, W.J., 2003. Nutrient removal by corn grain harvest. Agronomy Journal 95, 587–591.
    13. Hergert, G.W., Reuss, J.O., 1976. Sprinkler application of phosphorus and zinc fertilizers. Agronomy Journal 68, 5-8.
    14. Jones Jr., J.B., 1998. Field sampling procedures for conducting a plant analysis. In: Kalra, Y.P. (Ed.). Handbook of Reference Methods for Plant Analysis. CRC Press, Boca Raton. pp. 25-35.
    15. Laboski, C.A.M., Dowdy, R.H., Allmaras, R.R., Lamb, J.A., 1998. Soil strength and water content influences on corn root distribution in a sandy soil. Plant and Soil 203, 239–247.
    16. Larson, E., Oldham, L., 2008. Corn fertilization. Mississippi State University Extension Service. Information Sheet 864.
    17. Leikam, D., Mengel, D., 2007. Nutrient management. In: Kansas State University (Ed). Corn Production Handbook.
    18. Ling, F., Silberbush, M., 2002. Response of maize to foliar vs. soil application of nitrogen–phosphorus–potassium fertilizers. Journal of Plant Nutrition 25, 2333-2342.
    19. Mallarino, A.P., Blackmer, A.M., 1992. Comparison of methods for determining critical concentrations of soil test phosphorus for corn. Agronomy Journal 84, 850-856.
    20. Mayaki, W.C., Stone, L.R., Teare, I.D., 1976. Irrigated and nonirrigated soybean, corn, and grain sorghum root systems. Agronomy Journal 68, 532-534.

    21. TOP OF PAGE

    22. Mengel, D., Ruiz-Diaz, D., 2012. Starter fertilizer rates and placement for corn. Kansas State University Extension. Agronomy e-Updates 338, 1-4.
    23. Miller, M.H., Ohlrogge, A.J., 1958. Principles of nutrient uptake from fertilizer bands 1. Effect of placement of nitrogen fertilizer on the uptake of band-placed phosphorus at different soil phosphorus levels. Agronomy Journal 50, 95-97.
    24. Mortvedt, J.J., 1976. Band fertilizer placement – How much and how close? Fertilizer Solutions 20, 90-96.
    25. Neumann, P.M., 1979. Rapid evaluation of foliar fertilizer-induced damage: N, P, K, S on corn. Agronomy Journal 71, 598-602.
    26. Neumann, P.M., Ehrenreich, Y., Golab, Z., 1981. Foliar fertilizer damage to corn leaves: Relation to cuticular penetration. Agronomy Journal 73, 979-982.
    27. Newell, R.L., Wilhelm, W.W., 1987. Conservation tillage and irrigation effects on corn root development. Agronomy Journal 79, 160-165.
    28. Randall, G.W., Hoeft, R.G., 1988. Placement methods for improved efficiency of P and K fertilizers: A review. Journal of Production Agriculture 1, 70-78.
    29. Rehm, G.W., 1986. Effect of phosphorus placement on early growth, yield and phosphorus absorption by irrigated corn. Journal of Fertilizer Issues 3(1), 12-17.
    30. Rehm, G.W., Sorensen, R.C., Wiese, R.A., 1983. Application of phosphorus, potassium, and zinc to corn grown for grain or silage: Nutrient concentration and uptake. Soil Science Society of America Journal 47, 697-700.
    31. Rehm, G., Randall, G., Lamb, J., Eliason, R., 2006. Fertilizing corn in Minnesota. University of Minnesota Extension Service.
    32. Reisenauer, H.M., Quick, J., Voss, R.E., Brown, A.L., 1976. Chemical soil tests for soil fertility evaluation. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.). Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, Bulletin 1879. pp. 39-41.
    33. Shapiro, C.A., Ferguson, R.B., Hergert, G.W., Wortmann, C.S., Walters, D.T., 2008. Fertilizer suggestions for corn. University of Nebraska Extension. Publication EC 117.
    34. Tarkalson, D.D., Mikkelsen, R.L., 2004. Runoff phosphorus losses as related to phosphorus source, application method, and application rate on a Piedmont soil. Journal of Environmental Quality 33:1424–1430.
    35. Torres-Dorante, L.O., Claassen, N., Steingrobe, B., Olfs, H.W., 2006. Fertilizer-use efficiency of different inorganic polyphosphate sources: effects on soil P availability and plant P acquisition during early growth of corn. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 169, 509–515.
    36. Voss, R.D., 1993. Corn. In: Bennett, W.F. (Ed.). Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Crop Plants. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. pp. 11-14.
    37. Wortmann, C.S., Dobermann, A.R., Ferguson, R.B., Hergert, G.W., Shapiro, C.A., Tarkalson, D.D., Walters, D.T., 2009. High-yielding corn response to applied phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur in Nebraska. Agronomy Journal 101:546–555.
    TOP OF PAGE

    Potassium

    1. Below, F.E., Lambert, R.J., Hageman, R.H., 1984. Foliar applications of nutrients on maize. I. Yield and N content of grain and stover. Agronomy Journal 76, 773-777.
    2. Brittan, K., 2004. 2003 Yolo/Solano/Sacramento field corn production. University of California Cooperative Extension.
    3. Brown, B., Hart, J., Horneck, D., Moore, A., 2010. Nutrient management for field corn silage and grain in the Inland Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Extension. Publication PNW 615.
    4. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
    5. Davis, J.G., Westfall, D.G., 2009. Fertilizing corn. Colorado State University Extension. Fact Sheet No. 0.538.
    6. Doerge, T.A., Roth, R.L., Gardner, B.R., 1991. Nitrogen fertilizer management in Arizona. University of Arizona.
    7. Gardner, E.H., Hall., L.F., Pumphrey, F.V., 2000. Field corn - Eastern Oregon, east of Cascades. Oregon State University Extension Service. Fertilizer Guide.
    8. Girma, K., Martin, K.L., Freeman, K.W., Mosali, J., Teal, R.K., Raun, W.R., Moges, S.M., Arnall, D.B., 2007. Determination of optimum rate and growth stage for foliar-applied phosphorus in corn. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 38, 1137-1154.
    9. Giskin, M., Efron, Y., 1986. Planting date and foliar fertilization of corn grown for silage and grain under limited moisture. Agronomy Journal 78, 426-429.
    10. Hart, J., Sullivan, D., Gamroth, M., Downing, T., Peters, A., 2009. Silage corn (Western Oregon). Oregon State University Extension Service. Nutrient Management Guide.
    11. Heckman, J.R., 1995. Corn responses to chloride in maximum yield research. Agronomy Journal 87, 415-419.
    12. Heckman J.R., 1998. Corn stalk rot suppression and grain yield response to chloride. Journal of Plant Nutrition 21, 149-155.
    13. Heckman, J.R., Kamprath, E.J., 1992. Potassium accumulation and corn yield related to potassium fertilizer rate and placement. Soil Science Society of America Journal 56, 141-148.
    14. Heckman, J.R., Sims, J.T., Beegle, D.B., Coale, F.J., Herbert, S.J., Bruulsema, T.W., Bamka, W.J., 2003. Nutrient removal by corn grain harvest. Agronomy Journal 95, 587–591.
    15. Jones Jr., J.B., 1998. Field sampling procedures for conducting a plant analysis. In: Kalra, Y.P. (Ed.). Handbook of Reference Methods for Plant Analysis. CRC Press, Boca Raton. pp. 25-35.
    16. Ketterings, Q., Ristow, P., Aldrich, B., 2008. Potassium guidelines for corn. Cornell University Cooperative Extension. Agronomy Fact Sheet 40.
    17. Laboski, C.A.M., Dowdy, R.H., Allmaras, R.R., Lamb, J.A., 1998. Soil strength and water content influences on corn root distribution in a sandy soil. Plant and Soil 203, 239–247.
    18. Larson, E., Oldham, L., 2008. Corn fertilization. Mississippi State University Extension Service. Information Sheet 864.
    19. Leikam, D., Mengel, D., 2007. Nutrient management. In: Kansas State University (Ed). Corn Production Handbook.
    20. Mallarino, A.P., Higashi, S.L., 2009. Assessment of potassium supply for corn by analysis of plant parts. Soil Science Society of America Journal 73, 2177-2183.

    21. TOP OF PAGE

    22. Mallarino, A.P., Bergmann, N., Kaiser, D.E., 2011. Corn responses to in-furrow phosphorus and potassium starter fertilizer applications. Agronomy Journal 103, 685–694.
    23. Mayaki, W.C., Stone, L.R., Teare, I.D., 1976. Irrigated and nonirrigated soybean, corn, and grain sorghum root systems. Agronomy Journal 68, 532-534.
    24. Mortvedt, J.J., 1976. Band fertilizer placement – How much and how close? Fertilizer Solutions 20, 90-96.
    25. Neuman, P.M., Golab, Z., 1983. Comparative effects of mono and dipotassium phosphates on cell leakiness in corn leaves. Journal of Plant Nutrition 6, 275-282.
    26. Neumann, P.M., Ehrenreich, Y., Golab, Z., 1981. Foliar fertilizer damage to corn leaves: Relation to cuticular penetration. Agronomy Journal 73, 979-982.
    27. Newell, R.L., Wilhelm, W.W., 1987. Conservation tillage and irrigation effects on corn root development. Agronomy Journal 79, 160-165.
    28. Parker, M.B., Gaines, T.P., Gascho, G.J., 1985. Chloride effects on corn Zea-mays. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 16, 1319-1334.
    29. Parks, W.L., Walker, W.M., 1969. Effect of soil potassium, potassium fertilizer and method of fertilizer placement upon corn yields. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 33, 427-429.
    30. Pettygrove, G.S., Southard, R.J., 2003. Can we predict K fixation in the San Joaquin Valley from soil texture and mineralogy? FREP Final Report.
    31. Randall, G.W., Hoeft, R.G., 1988. Placement methods for improved efficiency of P and K fertilizers: A review. Journal of Production Agriculture 1, 70-78.
    32. Rehm, G.W., 1986. Effect of phosphorus placement on early growth, yield and phosphorus absorption by irrigated corn. Journal of Fertilizer Issues 3(1), 12-17.
    33. Rehm, G.W., 2006. Plant analysis in today’s agriculture.
    34. Rehm, G.W., Lamb, J.A., 2009. Corn response to fluid fertilizers placed near the seed at planting. Soil Science Society of America Journal 73, 1427-1434.
    35. Rehm, G.W. Sorensen, R.C., 1985. Effects of potassium and magnesium applied for corn grown on an irrigated sandy soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal 49, 1446-1450.
    36. Rehm, G.W., Sorensen, R.C., Wiese, R.A. 1981. Application of phosphorus, potassium, and zinc to corn grown for grain or silage: Early growth and yield. Soil Science Society of America Journal 45, 523-528.
    37. Rehm, G.W., Sorensen, R.C., Wiese, R.A., 1984. Soil test values for phosphorus, potassium, and zinc as affected by rate applied to corn. Soil Science Society of America Journal 48, 814-818.
    38. Rehm, G., Randall, G., Lamb, J., Eliason, R., 2006. Fertilizing corn in Minnesota. University of Minnesota Extension Service.
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