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    Cotton

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    Preplant
    Sowing
    First
    Square
    First White
    Bloom
    Peak
    Bloom
    First
    Open Boll

    Nitrogen (N)   

     

    Soil Test

    Petiole Analysis

     Preplant N

    Starter N

    Sidedress N

    Foliar N

    X

    Phosphorus (P2O5)   

     

    Soil Test

    Petiole Analysis

    Preplant P

    Starter P

    Sidedress P

    Foliar P

    X

    Potassium (K2O)   

     

    Soil Test

    Petiole Analysis

    Preplant K

    Starter K

    Sidedress K

    Foliar K

    X


    TOP OF PAGE

    References:


    Nitrogen

    1. Bassett, D.M., Anderson, W.D., Werkhoven, C.H.E., 1970. Dry matter production and nutrient uptake in irrigated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Agronomy Journal 62, 299-303.
    2. Bassett, D.M., MacKenzie, A.J., 1976. Plant analysis as a guide to cotton fertilization. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.) Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 16-17.
    3. Bednarz, C.W., Harris, G.H., Shurley, W.D., 2000. Agronomic and economic analyses of cotton starter fertilizers. Agronomy Journal 92, 766-771.
    4. Cahill, S., Johnson, A., Osmond, D., Hardy, D., 2008. Response of corn and cotton to starter phosphorus on soils testing very high in phosphorus. Agronomy Journal 100, 537-542.
    5. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
    6. Constable, G.A., Rochester, I.J., 1988. Nitrogen application to cotton on clay soil: timing and soil testing. Agronomy Journal 80, 498-502.
    7. Extension Cotton Team, 2012. 2012 Georgia cotton production guide.
    8. Fritschi, F.B., Roberts, B.A., Travis, R.L., Rains, D.W., Hutmacher, R.B., 2003. Response of irrigated Acala and Pima cotton to nitrogen fertilization: growth, dry matter partitioning, and yield. Agronomy Journal 95, 133-146.
    9. Fritschi, F.B., Roberts, B.A., Travis, R.L., Rains, D.W., Hutmacher, R.B., 2004. Seasonal nitrogen concentration, uptake, and partitioning pattern of irrigated Acala and Pima cotton as influenced by nitrogen fertility level. Crop Science 44, 516-527.
    10. Gerik, T.J., Oosterhuis, D.M., Torbert, H.A., 1998. Managing cotton nitrogen supply. Advances in Agronomy 64,115-147.
    11. Godfrey, L.D., Hutmacher, R.B., 2001. Interaction of cotton nitrogen fertility practices and cotton aphid population dynamics in California cotton. FREP Final Report.
    12. Guthrie, D.S., 1991. Cotton response to starter fertilizer placement and planting dates. Agronomy Journal 83, 336-839.
    13. Hutchinson, R.L., Howard, D.D., 1997. Response of no‐tillage and conventional‐tillage cotton to starter fertilization on loess soils. Journal of Plant Nutrition 20, 975-986.
    14. Hutmacher, R.B., 2012. California cotton: split or don't split nitrogen?
    15. Hutmacher, R.B., Travis, R.L., Rains, D.W., Vargas, R.N., Roberts, B.A., Weir, B.L., Wright, S.D., Munk, D.S., Marsh, B.H., Keeley, M.P., Fritschi, F.B., Munier, D.J., Nichols, R.L., Delgado, R., 2004. Response of recent Acala cotton varieties to variable nitrogen rates in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Agronomy Journal 96, 48-62.
    16. Hutmacher, R.B., Travis, R.L., Roberts, B.A., Keeley, M.P., Delgado, R., 2005. Residual soil nitrogen and nitrogen management for Acala cotton. FREP Final Report.
    17. Johnson Hake, S., Hake K.D., Kerby T.A., 1996c. Preplant-spring. In: Hake, S.J., Kerby T.A., Hake, K.D. (Eds.) Cotton Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3352. pp. 15-20.
    18. Johnson Hake, S., Hake K.D., Kerby T.A., 1996d. Prebloom decisions. In: Hake, S.J., Kerby T.A., Hake, K.D. (Eds.) Cotton Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3352. pp. 29-50.

    19. TOP OF PAGE

    20. Johnson Hake, S., Hake K.D., Kerby T.A., 1996e. Early to mid-bloom decisions. In: Hake, S.J., Kerby T.A., Hake, K.D. (Eds.) Cotton Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3352. pp. 51-63.
    21. Johnson Hake, S., Hake K.D., Kerby T.A., 1996f. Mid- to late-bloom decisions. In: Hake, S.J., Kerby T.A., Hake, K.D. (Eds.) Cotton Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3352. pp. 64-72.
    22. Maples, R.J., and J.L. Keogh, 1973. Phosphorus fertilization experiments with cotton on Delta soils of Arkansas. Arkansas Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin 781.
    23. Oosterhuis, D.M., Hake, K., Burmester, C., 1991. Foliar feeding cotton. Cotton Physiology Today 2, 1-8.
    24. Rains, W., Travis, R.L., Hutmacher, R., 2001. Nitrogen budget in California cotton cropping systems. FREP Final Report.
    25. Reddy, K.R., Hodges, H.F., Varco, J., 2000. Potassium nutrition of cotton. Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station Bulletin 1049.
    26. Roberts, R.K., Kenty, M.M., Thomas, J.M., Howard, D.D., 2006. Economic evaluation of soil and foliar applied nitrogen fertilization programs for cotton production. The Journal of Cotton Science 10, 193-200.
    27. Silvertooth, J.C., 2001. Agronomic guidelines for Pima cotton production in Arizona. University of Arizona Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1242.
    28. Silvertooth, J.C., Edmisten, K.L., McCarthy, W.H., 1999. Production practices. In: Smith, C.W., Cothren, J.T. (Eds.) Cotton - Origin, History, Technology, and Production. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 451-488.
    29. Silvertooth, J.C., Norton, E.R., 2011. Management of fertilizer nitrogen in Arizona cotton production. University of Arizona Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1243.
    30. Stewart, A.M., Edmisten, K. L., 1998. Cotton response to placement and rate of starter fertilizer. Journal of Plant Nutrition 21, 967-973.
    31. Touchton, J.T., Ricker, D.H., Burmester, C.H., Reeves, D.W., 1986. Starter fertilizer combinations and placement for conventional and no-tillage cotton. Journal of Fertilizer Issues 3, 91-98.
    32. Weir, B.L., Kerby, T.A., Hake, K.D., Roberts, B.A., Zelinski, L.J., 1996. Cotton fertility. In: Hake, S.J., Kerby T.A., Hake, K.D. (Eds.) Cotton Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3352. pp. 210-227.
    33. Weir, B., Miller, R., Hutmacher, R.B., Hufaker, R., Travis, R., Vargas, R., Munk, D., Wright, S., Roberts, B., Munier, D., 1997. Establishing updated guidelines for cotton nutrition. FREP Final Report.
    34. Wiedenfeld, B., Wallace, B.W., Hons, F., 2009. Indicators of cotton nitrogen status. Journal of Plant Nutrition 32, 1353-1370.
    35. Yang, G., Tang, H., Nie, Y., Zhang, X., 2011. Responses of cotton growth, yield, and biomass to nitrogen split application ratio. European Journal of Agronomy 35, 164-170.
    36. Yang, G., Tang, H., Tong, J., Nie, Y., Zhang, X., 2012. Effect of fertilization frequency on cotton yield and biomass accumulation. Field Crops Research 125, 161-166.
    37. Zelinski, L.J., 1985. Development of a soil nitrogen test for cotton. Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Production Research Conference, New Orleans, LA. National Cotton Council of America. pp. 304-306.
    TOP OF PAGE

    Phosphorus

    1. Bassett, D.M., MacKenzie, A.J., 1976. Plant analysis as a guide to cotton fertilization. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.) Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 16-17.
    2. Bednarz, C.W., Hopper, N.W., and Hickey, M.G., 1999. Effects of foliar fertilization of Texas southern high plains cotton: Leaf phosphorus, potassium, zinc, iron, manganese, boron, calcium, and yield distribution, Journal of Plant Nutrition 22, 863-875.
    3. Bednarz, C.W., Harris, G.H., Shurley, W.D., 2000. Agronomic and economic analyses of cotton starter fertilizers. Agronomy Journal 92, 766-771.
    4. Cahill, S., Johnson, A., Osmond, D., Hardy, D., 2008. Response of corn and cotton to starter phosphorus on soils testing very high in phosphorus. Agronomy Journal 100, 537-542.
    5. Cassman, K. G. 1993. Cotton. In Bennett, W. F. (Ed.) Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Crop Plants. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. pp. 111-119.
    6. Cooper, H.P., 1940. Nutritional deficiency symptoms in cotton. Proceedings of the Soil Science Society of America 4, 322-324.
    7. Dorahy, C.G., Rochester, I.J., and Blair, G.J., 2004. Response of field-grown cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to phosphorus fertilization on alkaline soils in eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 42, 913-920.
    8. Extension Cotton Team, 2012. 2012 Georgia cotton production guide.
    9. Guthrie, D.S., 1991. Cotton response to starter fertilizer placement and planting dates. Agronomy Journal 83, 336-839.
    10. Halevy J., 1976. Growth rate and nutrient uptake of two cotton cultivars grown under irrigation. Agronomy Journal 68, 701-705.
    11. Hutchinson, R.L., Howard, D.D., 1997. Response of no‐tillage and conventional‐tillage cotton to starter fertilization on loess soils. Journal of Plant Nutrition 20, 975-986.
    12. Johnson Hake S., Hake K.D., Kerby T.A., 1996a. Postharvest-Fall. In: Hake, S.J., Kerby T.A., Hake, K.D. (Eds.) Cotton Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3352. p. 1-5.
    13. Johnson Hake, S., Hake, K.D., Kerby, T.A., 1996b. Preparation for the new crop season - fall/winter. In: Hake, S.J., Kerby T.A., Hake, K.D. (Eds.) Cotton Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3352. pp. 6-14.

    14. TOP OF PAGE

    15. Johnson Hake, S., Hake K.D., Kerby T.A., 1996c. Preplant-spring. In: Hake, S.J., Kerby T.A., Hake, K.D. (Eds.) Cotton Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3352. pp. 15-20.
    16. Johnson Hake, S., Hake K.D., Kerby T.A., 1996d. Prebloom decisions. In: Hake, S.J., Kerby T.A., Hake, K.D. (Eds.) Cotton Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3352. pp. 29-50.
    17. Maples, R.J., and J.L. Keogh, 1973. Phosphorus fertilization experiments with cotton on Delta soils of Arkansas. Arkansas Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin 781.
    18. Mikkelsen D.S., 1955. Cotton phosphate fertilization: New soil test provides reliable and easily applied diagnostic guide to quantity of available phosphate. California Agriculture 9, 7-15.
    19. Mullins, G.L., 1993. Cotton root growth as affected by P fertilizer placement. Fertilizer Research 34, 23-26.
    20. Norton, E.R. and Silvertooth, J.C., 2006. A review of 10 years of phosphorus fertility research in Arizona. Arizona Cotton Report 2006, 289-279.
    21. Reddy, K.R., Hodges, H.F., Varco, J., 2000. Potassium nutrition of cotton. Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station Bulletin 1049.
    22. Reisenauer, H.M., Quick, J., Voss, R.E., 1976. Soil test interpretive guides. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.) Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 38-40.
    23. Rochester, I.J., 2010. Phosphorus and potassium nutrition of cotton: interaction with sodium. Crop and Pasture Science 61, 825-834.
    24. Stewart, A.M., Edmisten, K. L., 1998. Cotton response to placement and rate of starter fertilizer. Journal of Plant Nutrition 21, 967-973.
    25. Touchton, J.T., Ricker, D.H., Burmester, C.H., Reeves, D.W., 1986. Starter fertilizer combinations and placement for conventional and no-tillage cotton. Journal of Fertilizer Issues 3, 91-98.
    26. Weir, B.L., Kerby, T.A., Hake, K.D., Roberts, B.A., Zelinski, L.J., 1996. Cotton fertility. In: Hake, S.J., Kerby T.A., Hake, K.D. (Eds.) Cotton Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3352. pp. 210-227.
    27. Zelinski, L.J., 1985. Development of a soil nitrogen test for cotton. Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Production Research Conference, New Orleans, LA. National Cotton Council of America. pp. 304-306.
    TOP OF PAGE

    Potassium

    1. Bassett, D.M., Anderson, W.D., Werkhoven, C.H.E., 1970. Dry matter production and nutrient uptake in irrigated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Agronomy Journal 62, 299-303.
    2. Bassett, D.M., MacKenzie, A.J., 1976. Plant analysis as a guide to cotton fertilization. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.) Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 16-17.
    3. Bednarz, C.W., Harris, G.H., Shurley, W.D., 2000. Agronomic and economic analyses of cotton starter fertilizers. Agronomy Journal 92, 766-771.
    4. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
    5. Cassman, K.G., Kerby, T.A., Roberts, B.A., Bryant, D.C., Higashi, S.L., 1990. Potassium nutrition effects on lint yield and fiber quality of Acala cotton. Crop Science 30, 672-677.
    6. Cooper, H.P., 1940. Nutritional deficiency symptoms in cotton. Proceedings of the Soil Science Society of America 4, 322-324.
    7. Dong, H., Kong, X., Li, W., Tang, W., Zhang, D., 2010. Effects of plant density and nitrogen and potassium fertilization on cotton yield and uptake of major nutrients in two fields with varying fertility. Field Crops Research 119, 106-113.
    8. Guthrie, D.S., 1991. Cotton response to starter fertilizer placement and planting dates. Agronomy Journal 83, 336-839.
    9. Halevy J., 1976. Growth rate and nutrient uptake of two cotton cultivars grown under irrigation. Agronomy Journal 68, 701-705.
    10. Halevy, J., Marani, A., Markovitz, T. 1987. Growth and NPK uptake of high-yielding cotton grown at different nitrogen levels in a permanent-plot experiment. Plant and Soil 103, 39-44.
    11. Hutchinson, R.L., Howard, D.D., 1997. Response of no‐tillage and conventional‐tillage cotton to starter fertilization on loess soils. Journal of Plant Nutrition 20, 975-986.
    12. Hutmacher, R.B., Keeley, M.P., Davis, K.R., Ayars, J.E., Peters, M.S., Vail, S.S., Covarrubias, J., Nevarez, A., 1999. Cotton root system in a clay loam soil: effects of growth stage, irrigation and nitrogen treatment. Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conference 1999, 637-640.
    13. Johnson Hake, S., Hake, K.D., Kerby, T.A., 1996b. Preparation for the new crop season - fall/winter. In: Hake, S.J., Kerby T.A., Hake, K.D. (Eds.) Cotton Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3352. pp. 6-14.
    14. Johnson Hake, S., Hake K.D., Kerby T.A., 1996c. Preplant-spring. In: Hake, S.J., Kerby T.A., Hake, K.D. (Eds.) Cotton Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3352. pp. 15-20.
    15. Johnson Hake, S., Hake K.D., Kerby T.A., 1996d. Prebloom decisions. In: Hake, S.J., Kerby T.A., Hake, K.D. (Eds.) Cotton Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3352. pp. 29-50.
    16. López, M., de Castro, A., Gutiérrez, J.C., and Leidi, E.O., 2010. Nitrate and potassium concentrations in cotton petiole extracts as influenced by nitrogen fertilization, sampling date and cultivar. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 8, 202-209.
    17. Marsh, B., Pettygrove, S., Southard, R., Roberts, B., Munk, D., Vargas, R., Hutmacher, B., 2003. Soil and plant sampling: key to potassium management. California Cotton Review 66, 8-9.
    18. Miller, R., Weir, B., Vargas, R., Wright, S., Travis, B., Roberts, B., Rains, B., Munk, D., Munier, D., and Kerby, M., 1996. Cotton potassium fertility guidelines for the San Joaquin Valley of California. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 21562.
    19. Oosterhuis, D.M. 2002. Potassium management of cotton. In: Pasricha, N.S., Bansal, S.K. (Eds.) Potassium for Sustainable Crop Production. International Potash Institute, Basel, Switzerland and Potash Research Institute of India, Gurgaon, Haryana. pp. 321-346.
    20. Pettygrove, G.S., Southard, R.J., 2003. Can we predict K fixation in the San Joaquin Valley from soil texture and mineralogy? FREP Final Report.
    21. Reddy, K.R., Hodges, H.F., Varco, J., 2000. Potassium nutrition of cotton. Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station Bulletin 1049.
    22. Rochester, I.J., 2010. Phosphorus and potassium nutrition of cotton: interaction with sodium. Crop and Pasture Science 61, 825-834.
    23. Sabbe, W.E., Zelinski, L.J., 1990. Plant analysis as an aid in fertilizing cotton. In: Westerman, R.L. (Ed.). Soil Testing and Plant Analysis. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI. pp. 469-493.
    24. Stromberg, K., 1960. Need for potassium fertilizer on cotton determined by leaf and soil analyses. California Agriculture 14, 4-5.
    25. Weir, B.L., Kerby, T.A., Hake, K.D., Roberts, B.A., Zelinski, L.J., 1996. Cotton fertility. In: Hake, S.J., Kerby T.A., Hake, K.D. (Eds.) Cotton Production Manual. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3352. pp. 210-227.
    TOP OF PAGE