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    Additional Information:

  • Grapevine Nitrogen Uptake and Partitioning
  • Grapevine Production in California
  • Grapevine Nitrogen Management Brochure
  • FREP Database


  • Links:

  • UC ANR Integrated Viticulture
  • Department of Viticulture and Enology UC Davis
  • Department of Viticulture and Enology Fresno State University
  • UC IPM online
  • San Joaquin Valley Winegrowers Association
  • California Association of Winegrape Growers
  • California Table Grape Commission
  • Winegrape Growers of America
  • American Society for Enology and Viticulture
  • California Fertilization Guidelines

    Grapevines

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    Dormancy
    Bud Break
    Full Bloom
    Veraison
    Harvest

    Nitrogen (N)   

     

    Soil Test

    Petiole Analysis

      Soil Applied N

    Foliar N   

    X

    Phosphorus (P2O5)   

     

    Soil Test

    Petiole Analysis

    Soil Applied P

    Foliar P

    X

    Potassium (K2O)   

     

    Soil Test

    Petiole Analysis

    Soil Applied K

    Foliar K   

    X


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    References:


    Nitrogen

    1. Araujo, F.J., Williams, L.E., 1998. Dry matter and nitrogen partitioning and root growth of young field-grown Thomposon Seedless grapevines. Vitis 27, 21-32.
    2. Araujo, F., Williams, L.E., Grimes, D.W., Matthews, M.A., 1995. A comparative study of young ‘Thompson Seedless’ grapevines under drip and furrow irrigation. I. Root and soil water distributions. Scientia Horticulturae 60, 235-249.
    3. Bates, T.R., Dunst, R.M., Joy, P., 2002. Seasonal dry matter, starch, and nutrient distribution in ’Concord’ grapevine roots. HortScience 37, 313-316.
    4. Bavaresco, L., Gatti, M., Fregoni, M., 2010. Nutritional deficiencies. In: Delrot, S., Medrano, H., Or, E., Bavaresco, L., Grando, S. (Eds.). Methodologies and Results in Grapevine Research. Springer Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London, New York. pp. 165-191.
    5. Bell, S.J., Henschke, P.A., 2005. Implications of nitrogen nutrition for grapes, fermentation and wine. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 11, 242-295.
    6. Christensen, P., 1984. Nutrient level comparisons of leaf petioles and blades in twenty-six grape cultivars over three years (1979 through 1981). American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 35, 124-133.
    7. Christensen, P., 1994. Foliar fertilization of grapevines. University of California Cooperative Extension Tulare County, Publication NG6-94.
    8. Christensen, P., 2000. Use of tissue analysis in viticulture. University of California Cooperative Extension Tulare County, Publication NG10-00.
    9. Christensen, P., 2002. Monitoring and interpreting vine mineral nutrition status for wine grapes. Proceedings of the Central Coast Wine Grape Seminar, Salinas.
    10. Christensen, L.P, Peacock, W., 2000. Mineral nutrition and fertilization. In: Raisin Production Manual. University of California Division of Agricultural and Natural Resources Publication 3393, Oakland, CA. pp. 102-114.
    11. Christensen, L.P., Kasimatis, A.N., Jensen, F.L., 1978. Grapevine nutrition and fertilization in the San Joaquin Valley. University of California Publication 4087.
    12. Christensen, L.P., Bianchi, M.L., Peacock, W.L., Hirschfelt, D.J., 1994. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer timing and rate on inorganic nitrogen status, fruit composition, and yield of grapevines. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 45, 377-387.
    13. Conradie, W.J., 2004. Partitioning of mineral nutrients and timing of fertilizer applications for optimum efficiency. In: Christensen, L.P., Smart, D.R. (Eds.). Proceedings of the Soil Environment and Vine Mineral Nutrition Symposium. American Society for Enology and Viticulture, Davis, CA. pp. 69-81.
    14. Cook, J.A., Wheeler, D.W., 1976. Use of tissue analysis in viticulture. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.). Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, Bulletin 1879. pp. 18-19.
    15. Failla, O., Scienza, A., Brancadoro, L., 1996. Effects of nutrient spray applications on malic and tartaric acid levels in grapevine berry. Journal of Plant Nutrition 19, 41-50.
    16. Fleming, H.K., Alderter, R.B., 1949. The effects of urea and oil-wax emulsion sprays on the performance of Concord grapevine under cultivation and in Ladino clover sod. Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science 54, 171-176.
    17. Gärtel, W., 1993. Grapes. In: Bennett, W.F. (Ed.). Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Crop Plants. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. pp. 177-183.

    18. TOP OF PAGE

    19. Hashim-Buckey, J.M., 2009. Management of mineral nutrition in table grape vineyards.
    20. Kliewer, W.M., 1991. Methods for determining the nitrogen status of vineyards. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Nitrogen in Grapes and Wine. The American Society for Enology and Viticulture. pp. 133-147.
    21. Lambert, J.J., Anderson, M.M., Wolpert, J.A., 2008. Vineyard nutrient needs vary with rootstocks and soils. California Agriculture 62, 202-207.
    22. Mullins, M.G., Bouquet, A., Williams, L.E., 1992. Biology of the grapevine. Cambridge University Press.
    23. Mack, G.L., Shaulis, N.J., 1947. Nutritional sprays on grapes. Phytopathology 37, 14-15.
    24. Peacock, W., Christensen, L.P., 2000. Interpretation of soil and water analysis. In: Christensen, L.P. (Ed.). Raisin Production Manual. University of California Division of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Publication 3393, Oakland, CA. pp. 115-120.
    25. Peacock, W.L., Broadbent, F.E., Christensen, L.P., 1982. Late-fall nitrogen application in vineyards is inefficient. California Agriculture 36, 22-23.
    26. Peacock, W.L., Christensen, L.P., Broadbent, F.E., 1986. Fertilization of grapevines with drip irrigation. Report of Research for Fresh Table Grapes. California Table Grape Commission, Fresno.
    27. Peacock, W.L., Christensen, L.P., Broadbent, F.E., 1989. Uptake, storage, and utilization of soil-applied nitrogen by Thompson Seedless as affected by time of application. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 40, 16-20.
    28. Peacock, W.L., Christensen, L.P., Hirschfelt, D.J., 1991a. Influence of timing of nitrogen fertilizer application on grapevines in the San Joaquin Valley. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 42, 322-326.
    29. Peacock, W.L., Christensen, L.P., Hirschfelt, D.J., Broadbent, F.E., Stevens, R.G., 1991b. Efficient uptake and utilization of nitrogen in drip- and furrow-irrigated vineyards. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Nitrogen in Grapes and Wine. The American Society for Enology and Viticulture. pp. 116-119.
    30. Robinson, J.B., 2004. Critical plant tissue values and application of nutritional standards for practical use in vineyards. In: Christensen, L.P., Smart, D.R. (Ed.). Proceedings of the Soil Environment and Vine Mineral Nutrition Symposium. American Society for Enology and Viticulture, Davis, CA. pp. 61-68.
    31. Pradubsuk, S., Davenport, J.R., 2010. Seasonal uptake and partitioning of macronutrients in mature ‘Concord’ grape. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 135, 474-483.
    32. Smart, D.R., Schwass, E., Lakso, A., Morano, L., 2006. Grapevine rooting patterns: A comprehensive analysis and a review. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 57, 89-104.
    33. Vasquez, S., Fidelibus, M., 2006. Considerations for monitoring grapevine nutritional status. California Fresh Fruit and Raisin News 22(5), 9-11.
    34. Wheeler, S.J., Pickering, G.J., 2003. Optimizing grape quality through soil management practices. Food, Agriculture & Environment 1, 190-197.
    35. Williams, L.E, 1999. Fertilizer use efficiency and influence of rootstocks on uptake and accumulation of nutrients in wine grapes grown in the coastal valleys of California. FREP Final Report.
    TOP OF PAGE

    Phosphorus

    1. Araujo, F., Williams, L.E., Grimes, D.W., Matthews, M.A., 1995. A comparative study of young ‘Thompson Seedless’ grapevines under drip and furrow irrigation. I. Root and soil water distributions. Scientia Horticulturae 60, 235-249.
    2. Bavaresco, L., Gatti, M., Fregoni, M., 2010. Nutritional deficiencies. In: Delrot, S., Medrano, H., Or, E., Bavaresco, L., Grando, S. (Eds.). Methodologies and Results in Grapevine Research. Springer Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London, New York. pp. 165-191.
    3. Christensen, P., 2002. Monitoring and interpreting vine mineral nutrition status for wine grapes. Proceedings of the Central Coast Wine Grape Seminar, Salinas.
    4. Christensen, L.P., Kasimatis, A.N., Jensen, F.L., 1978. Grapevine nutrition and fertilization in the San Joaquin Valley. University of California Publication 4087.
    5. Cook, J. A., Wheeler, D.W., 1976. Use of tissue analysis in viticulture. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.). Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, Bulletin 1879. pp. 18-19.
    6. Cook, J.A., Baranek, P.P., Christensen, L.P., Malstrom, H.L., 1968. Vineyard response to phosphate-zinc foliar sprays. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 19, 17-26.
    7. Cook, J.A., Ward, W.R., Wicks, A.S., 1983. Phosphorus deficiency in California vineyards. California Agriculture 37, 16-18.
    8. Gärtel, W., 1993. Grapes. In: Bennett, W.F. (Ed.). Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Crop Plants. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. pp. 177-183.
    9. Grant, R.S., Matthews, M.A., 1996a. The influence of phosphorus availability, scion, and rootstock on grapevine shoot growth, leaf area, and petiole phosphorus concentration. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 47, 217-224.
    10. Grant, R.S., Matthews, M.A., 1996b. The influence of phosphorus availability and rootstock on root system characteristics, phosphorus uptake, phosphorus partitioning, and growth efficiency. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 47, 403-409.
    11. Grant, R.S., 1999. Managing phosphorus deficiency in vineyards. Practical Winery and Vineyard Journal January/February, 87-90.

    12. TOP OF PAGE

    13. Keller, M., 2005. Deficit irrigation and vine mineral nutrition. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 56, 267-283.
    14. Kliewer, W.M., 1991. Methods for determining the nitrogen status of vineyards. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Nitrogen in Grapes and Wine. The American Society for Enology and Viticulture. pp. 133-147.
    15. Mullins, M.G., Bouquet, A., Williams, L.E., 1992. Biology of the Grapevine. Cambridge University Press.
    16. Peacock, W., Christensen, L.P., 2000. Interpretation of soil and water analysis. In: Christensen, L.P. (Ed.). Raisin Production Manual. University of California Division of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Publication 3393, Oakland, CA. pp. 115-120.
    17. Robinson, J.B., 2004. Critical plant tissue values and application of nutritional standards for practical use in vineyards. In: Christensen, L.P., Smart, D.R. (Ed.). Proceedings of the Soil Environment and Vine Mineral Nutrition Symposium. American Society for Enology and Viticulture, Davis, CA. pp. 61-68.
    18. Schreiner, R.P., 2010. Foliar sprays containing phosphorus (P) have minimal impact on ‘Pinot Noir’ growth and P status, mycorrhizal colonization, and fruit quality. HortScience 45, 815-821.
    19. Skinner, P.W., Cook, J.A., Matthews, M.A., 1988. Response of grapevine cvs Chenin Blanc and Chardonnay to phosphorus fertilizer applications under phosphorus-limited conditions. Vitis 27, 95-109.
    20. Smart, D.R., Schwass, E., Lakso, A., Morano, L., 2006. Grapevine rooting patterns: A comprehensive analysis and a review. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 57, 89-104.
    21. Topalovic, A., Slatnar, A., Stampar, F., Knezevic, M., Veberic, R., 2011. Influence of foliar fertilization with P and K on chemical constituents of grape cv. ‘Cardinal’. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59, 10303–10310.
    22. Vasquez, S., Fidelibus, M., 2006. Considerations for monitoring grapevine nutritional status. California Fresh Fruit and Raisin News 22(5), 9-11.
    23. Verdegaal, P.S., 2009. Micro-nutrients major effects. Presentation held at the Calaveras Grape Growers Meeting.
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    Potassium

    1. Araujo, F., Williams, L.E., Grimes, D.W., Matthews, M.A., 1995. A comparative study of young ‘Thompson Seedless’ grapevines under drip and furrow irrigation. I. Root and soil water distributions. Scientia Horticulturae 60, 235-249.
    2. Bavaresco, L., Gatti, M., Fregoni, M., 2010. Nutritional deficiencies. In: Delrot, S., Medrano, H., Or, E., Bavaresco, L., Grando, S. (Eds.). Methodologies and Results in Grapevine Research. Springer Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London, New York. pp. 165-191.
    3. Christensen, P., 1975. Long-term responses of ‘Thompson Seedless’ vines to potassium fertilizer treatment. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 26, 179-183.
    4. Christensen, P., 1994. Foliar fertilization of grapevines. University of California Cooperative Extension Tulare County, Publication NG6-94.
    5. Christensen, P., 2002. Monitoring and interpreting vine mineral nutrition status for wine grapes. Proceedings of the Central Coast Wine Grape Seminar, Salinas.
    6. Christensen, L.P., Kasimatis, A.N., Jensen, F.L., 1978. Grapevine nutrition and fertilization in the San Joaquin Valley. University of California Publication 4087.
    7. Christensen, L.P., Peacock, W.L., Bianchi, M.L., 1991. Potassium fertilization of Thompson Seedless grapevines using fertilizer sources under drip irrigation. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 42, 227-232.
    8. Conradie, W.J., 2004. Partitioning of mineral nutrients and timing of fertilizer applications for optimum efficiency. In: Christensen, L.P., Smart, D.R. (Ed.). Proceedings of the Soil Environment and Vine Mineral Nutrition Symposium. American Society for Enology and Viticulture, Davis, CA. pp. 69-81.
    9. Cook, J. A., Wheeler, D.W., 1976. Use of tissue analysis in viticulture. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.). Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, Bulletin 1879. pp. 18-19.
    10. Failla, O., Scienza, A., Brancadoro, L., 1996. Effects of nutrient spray applications on malic and tartaric acid levels in grapevine berry. Journal of Plant Nutrition 19, 41-50.
    11. Gärtel, W., 1993. Grapes. In: Bennett, W.F. (Ed.). Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Crop Plants. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. pp. 177-183.
    12. Ingels, C., Verdegaal, P., Pettygrove, S., DeBiase, R., 2010. Potassium nutrition in vineyards. University of California Cooperative Extension Sacramento County Tree and Vine Newsletter, November, 2010.
    13. Kasimatis, A.N., Christensen L.P., 1976. Response of Thompson Seedless grapevines to potassium application from three fertilizer sources. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 27, 145-149.
    14. Kliewer, W.M., 1991. Methods for determining the nitrogen status of vineyards. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Nitrogen in Grapes and Wine. The American Society for Enology and Viticulture. pp. 133-147.

    15. TOP OF PAGE

    16. Lambert, J.J., Anderson, M.M., Wolpert, J.A., 2008. Vineyard nutrient needs vary with rootstocks and soils. California Agriculture 62, 202-207.
    17. Mpelasoka, B.S., Schachtman, D.P., Treeby, M.T., Thomas, M.R., 2003. A review of potassium nutrition in grapevines with special emphasis on berry accumulation. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 9, 154-168.
    18. Mullins, M.G., Bouquet, A., Williams, L.E., 1992. Biology of the Grapevine. Cambridge University Press.
    19. O’Geen, A.T., Pettygrove, S., Southard, R.J., Minoshima, H., Verdegaal, P.S., 2008. Soil-landscape model helps predict potassium supply in vineyards. California Agriculture 62, 195-201.
    20. Peacock, B., 1999. Potassium in soils and grapevine nutrition. University of California Cooperative Extension Tulare County, Publication NG9-99.
    21. Peacock, W.L., 2004. Fertigating drip-irrigated vineyards with macro- and micronutrients. In: Christensen, L.P., Smart, D.R. (Ed.). Proceedings of the Soil Environment and Vine Mineral Nutrition Symposium. American Society for Enology and Viticulture, Davis, CA. pp. 129-133.
    22. Peacock, W., Christensen, L.P., 2000. Interpretation of soil and water analysis. In: Christensen, L.P. (Ed.). Raisin Production Manual. University of California Division of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Publication 3393, Oakland, CA. pp. 115-120.
    23. Pettygrove, G.S., Southard, R.J., 2003. Can we predict K fixation in the San Joaquin Valley from soil texture and mineralogy? FREP Final Report.
    24. Pradubsuk, S., Davenport, J.R., 2010. Seasonal uptake and partitioning of macronutrients in mature ‘Concord’ grape. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 135, 474-483.
    25. Robinson, J.B., 2004. Critical plant tissue values and application of nutritional standards for practical use in vineyards. In: Christensen, L.P., Smart, D.R. (Ed.). Proceedings of the Soil Environment and Vine Mineral Nutrition Symposium. American Society for Enology and Viticulture, Davis, CA. pp. 61-68.
    26. Schreiner, R.P., 2010. Foliar sprays containing phosphorus (P) have minimal impact on ‘Pinot Noir’ growth and P status, mycorrhizal colonization, and fruit quality. HortScience 45, 815-821.
    27. Smart, D.R., Schwass, E., Lakso, A., Morano, L., 2006. Grapevine rooting patterns: A comprehensive analysis and a review. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 57, 89-104.
    28. Vasquez, S., Fidelibus, M., 2006. Considerations for monitoring grapevine nutritional status. California Fresh Fruit and Raisin News 22(5), 9-11.
    29. Williams, L.E., Biscay, P.J., 1991. Partitioning of dry weight, nitrogen, and potassium in Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines from anthesis until harvest. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 42, 113-117.
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