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    Additional Information:

  • Lettuce Nitrogen Uptake and Partitioning
  • Lettuce Production in California
  • Lettuce Nitrogen Management Brochure
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    Lettuce

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    Preplant
    Sowing
    Rosette
    Stage
    Head
    Development
    Harvest

    Nitrogen (N)   

     

    Soil Test

    Leaf Analysis

     Preplant N

    Starter N

    Sidedress N

    X

    Phosphorus (P2O5)   

     

    Soil Test

    Leaf Analysis

    Preplant P

    Starter P

    X

    Potassium (K2O)   

     

    Soil Test

    Leaf Analysis

    Preplant K / K Fertigation

    X


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    References:


    Nitrogen

    1. Abu-Rayyan, A., Khraiwesh, B.H., Al-Ismail K., 2004. Nitrate content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) heads in relation to plant spacing, nitrogen form and irrigation level. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 84, 931–936.
    2. Bottoms, T.G., Smith, R.F., Cahn, M.D., Hartz, T.K., 2012. Nitrogen requirements and N status determination if lettuce. HortScience 47, 1768-1774.
    3. Breschini, S.J., Hartz, T.K., 2002. Presidedress soil nitrate testing reduces nitrogen fertilizer use and nitrate leaching hazard in lettuce production. HortScience 37, 1061-1064.
    4. Cahn, M., Hartz, T., 2012. Irrigation and nitrogen management web-based software for lettuce production. FREP Conference Proceedings 2012, 18-22.
    5. Cahn, M., Smith, R., 2010. Summary of 2008-09 large scale irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer management trials in lettuce. UCCE Monterey County Crop Notes March/April 2010, 5-9.
    6. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
    7. Chohura, P., Kolota E., 2011. Effect of differentiated nitrogen fertilization on the yield and quality of leaf lettuce. Folia Horticulturae 23, 61-66.
    8. Gardner, B.R., Pew, D.W., 1979. Comparison of various nitrogen sources for the fertilization of winter-grown head lettuce. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 104, 534-536.
    9. Grogan, R.G., Zink, F.W., 1956. Fertilizer injury to lettuce. California Agriculture 10 (12), 5-16.
    10. Hartz, T., 2003. Demonstration of presidedress soil nitrate testing as an N management tool. FREP Final Report.
    11. Hartz, T.K., 2006. Vegetable production best management practices to minimize nutrient loss. HortTechnology 16, 398-403.
    12. Hartz, T.K., 2007. Efficient nitrogen management for cool-season vegetables.
    13. Hartz, T., Smith, R., 2012. In-season soil nitrate testing explained. UCCE Monterey County Crop Notes July/August 2012, 6-7.
    14. Hartz, T.K., Smith, R.F., Schulbach, K.F., LeStrange, M., 1994. On-farm nitrogen tests improve fertilizer efficiency, protect groundwater. California Agriculture 48, 29-32.
    15. Hartz, T.K., Bendixen, W.E., Wierdsma, L., 2000. The value of presidedress soil nitrate testing as a nitrogen management tool in irrigated vegetable production. HortScience 35, 651–656.
    16. Hartz, T.K., Johnstone, P.R., Williams, E., Smith, R.F., 2007a. Establishing lettuce leaf nutrient optimum ranges through DRIS analysis. HortScience 42, 143–146.
    17. Hartz, T.K., Johnstone, P.R., Smith, R.F., Cahn, M.D., 2007b. Soil calcium status unrelated to tipburn of romaine lettuce. HortScience 42, 1681–1684.
    18. Hemphill, D.D., 1982. Anti crustant effects on soil mechanical resistance and seedling emergence. HortScience 17, 391-393.
    19. Hoque, M.M., Ajwa, H., Othman, M., Smith, R., Cahn, M., 2010. Yield and postharvest quality of lettuce in response to nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers. HortScience 45, 1539-1544.
    20. Jackson, L.E., 1995. Root architecture in cultivated and wild lettuce (Lactuca spp.). Plant, Cell and Environment 18, 885-894.
    21. Jackson, L.E., Stivers, L.J., Warden, B.T., Tanji, K.K., 1994. Crop nitrogen utilization and soil nitrate loss in a lettuce field. Fertilizer Research 37, 93-105.
    22. Kerns, D.L., Matheron, M.E., Palumbo, J.C., Sanchez, C.A., Still, D.W., Tickes, B.R., Umeda, K., Wilcox, M.A., 1999. Guidelines for head lettuce production in Arizona. Cooperative Extension University of Arizona.

    23. TOP OF PAGE

    24. Koike, S., 2011. Wilting lettuce plants damaged by soil and wind factors.
    25. Newman, J.M., Hilton, H.W., Clifford, S.C., Smith, A.C., 2005. The mechanical properties of lettuce: A comparison of some agronomic and postharvest effects. Journal of Materials Science 40, 1101–1104.
    26. Sanchez, C.A., 1998. Diagnostic tools for efficient N management of vegetables produced in the low desert. FREP Final Report.
    27. Simonne, E., Simonne, A., Wells, L., 2001. Nitrogen source affects crunchiness, but not lettuce yield. Journal of Plant Nutrition 24, 743-751.
    28. Smith, R., 2010. Fine tuning nitrogen management for vegetable production. UCCE Monterey County Crop Notes March/April 2010, 12-14.
    29. Smith, R., 2011. Fertilizer burn issues on lettuce. Salinas Valley Agriculture.
    30. Smith, R., Cahn, M., Daugovish, O., Koike, S., Natwick, E., Smith, H., Subbarao, K., Takele, E., Turini, T., 2011. Leaf lettuce production in California. UC ANR Publication 7216.
    31. Sosa, A., Padilla, J., Ortiz J., Etchevers, J.D., 2012. Biomass accumulation and its relationship with the demand and concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in lettuce. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 43, 121-133.
    32. Stone, D.A., 2000. The effects of starter fertilizers on the growth and nitrogen use efficiency of onion and lettuce. Soil Use and Management 16, 42-48.
    33. Thompson T.L., Doerge T.A., 1995. Nitrogen and water rates for subsurface trickle-irrigated romaine lettuce. HortScience 30, 1233-1237.
    34. Thompson T.L., Doerge T.A., 1996. Nitrogen and water interactions in subsurface trickle-irrigated leaf lettuce: I. Plant response. Soil Science Society of America Journal 60, 163-168.
    35. Turini, T., Cahn, M., Cantwell, M., Jackson, L., Koike, S., Natwick, E., Smith, R., Subbarao, K., Takele, E., 2011. Iceberg lettuce production in California. UC ANR Publication 7215.
    36. Tyler, K.B., Lorenz, O.A., 1977. Lettuce fertilization. California Iceberg Lettuce Research Program. Annual Report 1976-1977, 24-27.
    37. UC IPM, 2009. UC IPM pest management guidelines: Lettuce fertilization. UC ANR Publication 3450.
    38. USDA ARS, 2011. Butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata). Phosphorus deficiency.
    39. van Bruggen, A.H.C., Brown, P.R., Greathead, A., 1990. Distinction between infectious and noninfectious corky root of lettuce in relation to nitrogen fertilizer. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 115, 762-770.
    40. Wallace, T., 1951. The Diagnosis of Mineral Deficiencies in Plants by Visual Symptoms. His Majesty's Stationary Office, London, UK.
    41. Walworth, J.L., Carling, D.E., Michaelson, G.J., 1992. Nitrogen sources and rates for direct-seeded and transplanted head lettuce. HortScience 27, 228-230.
    42. Zink, F.W., Yamaguchi, M., 1963. Head lettuce growth and nutrient absorption studies indicate need for re-evaluation of fertilizer practices. California Agriculture 17(6), 13-14.
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    Phosphorus

    1. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
    2. Costigan, P.A., 1986. The effects of soil temperature on the response of lettuce seedlings to starter fertilizer. Plant and Soil 93,183-193.
    3. Hartz, T.K., 2007. Efficient nitrogen management for cool-season vegetables.
    4. Hartz, T.K., Johnstone, P.R., Williams, E., Smith, R.F., 2007. Establishing lettuce leaf nutrient optimum ranges through DRIS analysis. HortScience, 42, 143–146.
    5. Hoque, M.M., Ajwa, H., Othman, M., Smith, R., Cahn, M., 2010. Yield and postharvest quality of lettuce in response to nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers. HortScience 45, 1539-1544.
    6. Jackson, L.E., 1995. Root architecture in cultivated and wild lettuce (Lactuca spp.). Plant, Cell and Environment 18, 885-894.
    7. Jackson, L.E., Stivers, L.J., Warden, B.T., Tanji, K.K., 1994. Crop nitrogen utilization and soil nitrate loss in a lettuce field. Fertilizer Research 37, 93-105.
    8. Johnstone, P.R., Hartz, T.K., Cahn, M.D., Johnstone, M.R., 2005. Lettuce response to phosphorus fertilization in high phosphorus soils. HortScience 40, 1499-1503.
    9. Kerns, D.L., Matheron, M.E., Palumbo, J.C., Sanchez, C.A., Still, D.W., Tickes, B.R., Umeda, K., Wilcox, M.A., 1999. Guidelines for head lettuce production in Arizona. Cooperative Extension University of Arizona.
    10. Murakami, T., Yamada, K., Yoshida, S., 2002. Root distribution of field-grown crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) under different fertilizer and mulch treatment. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 48, 347-355.
    11. Pritchard, K.H., Doerge, T.A., McCreary, T.W., 1994. The response of leaf lettuce to phosphorus fertilizer placement and rate. University of Arizona Vegetable Report 1993, 30-37.
    12. Smith, R., Hartz, T., 2008. Phosphorus fertilizer management for lettuce production and water quality protection. UCCE Monterey County Crop Notes November/December 2008, 3-5.
    13. Smith, R., Bensen, T., Ajwa, H., Klose, S., 2006. Phosphorus fertilizer evaluations on head lettuce in the Salinas Valley. UCCE Monterey County Crop Notes March/April 2006, 4-5.
    14. Tyler, K.B., Lorenz, O.A., 1977. Lettuce fertilization. California Iceberg Lettuce Research Program. Annual Report 1976-1977, 24-27.
    15. UC IPM, 2009. UC IPM pest management guidelines: Lettuce fertilization. UC ANR Publication 3450.
    16. USDA ARS, 2011. Butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata). Phosphorus deficiency.
    17. Wallace, T., 1951. The Diagnosis of Mineral Deficiencies in Plants by Visual Symptoms. His Majesty's Stationary Office, London, UK.
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    Potassium

    1. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
    2. Hartz, T.K., 2007. Efficient nitrogen management for cool-season vegetables.
    3. Hartz, T.K., Johnstone, P.R., Williams, E., Smith, R.F., 2007. Establishing lettuce leaf nutrient optimum ranges through DRIS analysis. HortScience, 42 143–146.
    4. Hoque, M.M., Ajwa, H., Othman, M., Smith, R., Cahn, M., 2010. Yield and postharvest quality of lettuce in response to nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers. HortScience 45, 1539-1544.
    5. Howard, F.D., MacGillivray, J.H., Yamaguchi, M., 1962. Nutrient composition of fresh California grown vegetables. California Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin No. 788.
    6. International Plant Nutrition Institute. Nutrient source specifics.
    7. Inthichack, P., Nishimura, Y., Yasufumi, F., 2012. Effect of potassium sources and rates on plant growth, mineral absorption, and the incidence of tip burn in cabbage, celery, and lettuce. Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology 53, 135-142.
    8. Jackson, L.E., 1995. Root architecture in cultivated and wild lettuce (Lactuca spp.). Plant, Cell and Environment 18, 885-894.
    9. Jackson, L.E., Stivers, L.J., Warden, B.T., Tanji, K.K., 1994. Crop nitrogen utilization and soil nitrate loss in a lettuce field. Fertilizer Research 37, 93-105.
    10. Murakami, T., Yamada, K., Yoshida, S., 2002. Root distribution of field-grown crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) under different fertilizer and mulch treatment. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 48, 347-355.
    11. Sosa, A., Padilla, J., Ortiz J., Etchevers, J.D., 2012. Biomass accumulation and its relationship with the demand and concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in lettuce. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 43, 121-133.
    12. UC IPM, 2009. UC IPM pest management guidelines: Lettuce fertilization. UC ANR Publication 3450.
    13. USDA NASS. Historical Data.
    14. Wallace, T., 1951. The Diagnosis of Mineral Deficiencies in Plants by Visual Symptoms. His Majesty's Stationary Office, London, UK.
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