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    Onions

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    Preplant
    Sowing /
    Transplanting
    Vegetative
    Growth
    Bulb
    Initiation
    Bulb
    Development
    Maturity

    Nitrogen (N)   

     

    Soil Test

    Tissue Analysis

     Preplant / Starter N

       Soil Applied N

    Foliar N

    X

    Phosphorus (P2O5)   

     

    Soil Test

    Tissue Analysis

    Preplant P

    Starter P

    Soil Applied P

    X

    Potassium (K2O)   

     

    Soil Test

    Tissue Analysis

    Soil Applied K

    X


    TOP OF PAGE

    References:


    Nitrogen

    1. Bender, B.A., 1993. Onions. In: Bennett, W.F., (Ed.). Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Crop Plants. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul., MN. pp 131-135.
    2. Biscaro, A., Cahn, M., 2014. Improving irrigation and nutrient management. Garlic and Onion Symposium, Tulare, California, Feb 10, 2014.
    3. Biscaro, A., Cahn, M., Smith, R., Hartz, T., 2014. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake patterns of fresh-market onion production in southern California. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America (ASA, CSSA, and SSSA) International Annual Meetings, Long Beach CA, ASA, CSSA, and SSSA.
    4. Boyhan, G.E., Torrance, R.L., Hill, C.R., 2007. Effects of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium rates and fertilizer sources on yield and leaf nutrient status of short-day onions. HortScience 42, 653-660.
    5. Brown, B., 1997. Soil test N for predicting onion N requirements- an Idaho perspective. Proceedings of the Western Nutrient Management Conference, Salt Lake City, Utah, March 6-7, 1997. Vol 2, pp. 43-48.
    6. Brown, B., 2000. Southern Idaho Fertilizer Guide for Onions. University of Idaho Cooperative Extension.
    7. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
    8. Diaz-Perez, J.C., Purvis, A.C., Paulk, J.T., 2003. Bolting, yield, and bulb decay of sweet onion as affected by nitrogen fertilization. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 128, 144-149.
    9. Drost, D., Koenig, R., Tindall, T., 2002. Nitrogen use efficiency and onion yield increased with a polymer- coated nitrogen source. HortScience 37, 338-342.
    10. Greenwood, D.J., Gerwitz, A., Stone, D.A., Barnes, A., 1982. Root development of vegetable crops. Plant and Soil 68, 75-96.
    11. Hartz, T., 1998. Evaluation of pre-sidedress soil nitrate testing to determine N requirements of cool season vegetables. FREP Final Report.
    12. Hartz, T.K., 2007. Soil testing for nutrient availability: procedures and interpretation for California Vegetable Crop Production.
    13. Hartz, T.K., Smith, R.F., Schulbach, K.F., LeStrange, M., 1994. On-farm nitrogen tests improve fertilizer efficiency, protect groundwater. California Agriculture 48(4), 29-32.
    14. Hartz, T.K., Bendixen, W.E., Wierdsma, L., 2000. The value of presidedress soil nitrate testing as a nitrogen management tool in irrigated vegetable production. HortScience 35, 651–656.
    15. IPM Center, 1999. Crop Profile for Onions in California.
    16. Jensen, L., Sanders, L., 2001. Controlled-release fertilizers for onions in the Treasure Valley. Oregon State University Agricultural Experiment Station- Special Report 1029, 84-89.
    17. May, D., Le Strange, M., Hanson, B., 2008. Fertilizer and irrigation studies in drip irrigated fresh market onions and furrow irrigated garlic and processed onions. Garlic and Onion Symposium, Tulare, California, Feb 11, 2008.

    18. TOP OF PAGE

    19. Maynard, D.N., Hochmuth, G.J., 2007. Knott's Handbook for Vegetable Growers, 5th Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    20. Reddy, S., Neufeld, J., Klauzer, J., 2008. Nitrate and water use efficiency in onion production under drip and furrow irrigation. Idaho Nutrient Management Conference, Jerome, Idaho, March 4, 2008.
    21. Rumpel, J., Kaniszewski, S., Dysko, J., 2003. Effect of drip irrigation and fertilization timing and rate on yield of onion. Journal of Vegetable Crop Production 9, 65-73.
    22. Schulbach, K., Smith, R., Hartz, T., Jackson, L., 1998. Guide to nitrogen quick-tests for vegetables with the 'Cardy' nitrate meter. FREP final report.
    23. Shock, C.C., Feibert, E.B.G., Saunders, L.D., 2004. Plant population and nitrogen fertilization for subsurface drip-irrigated onion. HortScience 39, 1722-1727.
    24. Smith, R., Biscaro, A., Cahn, M., Daugovish, O., Natwick, Nunez, J., ... Turini, T., 2011. Fresh-market bulb onion production in California. UC ANR Publication 7242.
    25. Smith, R., Schulbach, K., 1996. Development and promotion of nitrogen quick tests for determining nitrogen fertilizer needs of vegetables and survey of soil residual nitrate-nitrogen levels in vegetables. FREP Final Report.
    26. Stone, D.A., 2000. The effects of starter fertilizers on the growth and nitrogen use efficiency of onion and lettuce. Soil Use and Management 16, 42-48.
    27. Sullivan, D.M., Brown, B.D., Shock, C.C., Horneck, D.A., Stevens, R.G., Pelter, G.Q., Fiebert, E.B.G., 2001. Nutrient management for onions in the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Extension Publication 546.
    28. Teviotdale, B.L., Davis, R.M., Guerard, J.P., Harper, D.H., 1990. Method of irrigation affects sour skin rot of onion. California Agriculture 44(5), 27-28.
    29. Thorup-Kirstensen, K., 2006. Root growth and nitrogen uptake of carrot, early cabbage, onion and lettuce following a range of green manures. Soil Use and Management 22, 29-38.
    30. Voss, R.E., Mayberry, K.S., 1999. Dehydrator bulb onion production in California. UC ANR Publication 7239.
    31. Weaver, J.E., Bruner, W.E., 1927. Root development of vegetable crops. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. New York.
    32. Westerveld, S.M., McKeown, A.W., Scott-Dupree, C.D., McDonald, M.R., 2003. How well do critical nitrogen concentrations work for cabbage, carrot and onion crops? HortScience 38, 1122-1128.
    33. Wiedenfeld, R., Scully, B., Miller, M., Edelson, J., Wang, J., 1990. Foliar nitrogen effects on onion production and damage by thrips and purple blotch. Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science Southern Region 50th Annnual Meeting, 3-6 February, 1990.
    34. Wilson, R., Kirby, D., Kliewer, B., Nicholson, K., 2011. 2011 Onion fertilizer frial. UC ANR Research Report No.144.
    35. Wilson, R., Kirby, D., Culp, D., Nicholson, K., 2012.2012 Onion fertilizer trial. UC ANR Research Report No.146.
    36. Zeka, N., Nasto, T., Balliu, A., 2009. The influence of N sources and fertilization doses on dry onion (Allium cepa L.) yield and bulbs shelf life. Acta Horticulturae 830, 493-496.
    37. Zink, F.W., 1966. Studies on the growth rate and nutrient absorption of onion. Hilgardia 37, 203-218.
    TOP OF PAGE

    Phosphorus

    1. Bender, B.A., 1993. Onions. In: Bennett, W.F., (Ed.). Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Crop Plants. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul., MN. pp 131-135.
    2. Brewster, J.L., 2008. Onions and Other Vegetable Alliums, 2nd Edition. CAB International.
    3. Biscaro, A., Cahn, M., 2014. Improving irrigation and nutrient management. Garlic and Onion Symposium, Tulare, California, Feb 10, 2014.
    4. Biscaro, A., Cahn, M., Smith, R., Hartz, T., 2014. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake patterns of fresh-market onion production in southern California. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America (ASA, CSSA, and SSSA) International Annual Meetings, Long Beach CA, ASA, CSSA, and SSSA.
    5. Biscaro, A., Orloff, S., 2010. Site-specific nutrient management for onion production: Soil fertility and fertilizer usage comparison. Garlic and Onion Symposium, Tulare, California, Feb 8, 2010.
    6. Boyhan, G.E., Torrance, R.L., Hill, C.R., 2007. Effects of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium rates and fertilizer sources on yield and leaf nutrient status of short-day onions. HortScience 42, 653-660.
    7. Brown, B., 1997. Soil test N for predicting onion N requirements- an Idaho perspective. Proceedings of the Western Nutrient Management Conference, Salt Lake City, Utah, March 6-7, 1997. Vol 2, pp. 43-48.
    8. Brown, B., 2000. Southern Idaho Fertilizer Guide for Onions. University of Idaho Cooperative Extension.
    9. Brown, B.D., 2001. Onion response to fumigation and P placement. Better Crops 85, 9-11.
    10. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
    11. Fritz, V.A., Tong, C.B., Rosen, C.J., Wright, J.A., 2010. Yellow storage onions- vegetable crop management. University of Minnesota Extension. Accessed January, 2016
    12. Greenwood, D.J., Gerwitz, A., Stone, D.A., Barnes, A., 1982. Root development of vegetable crops. Plant and Soil 68, 75-96.
    13. Hartz, T.K., 2007. Soil testing for nutrient availability: procedures and interpretation for California vegetable crop production.
    14. Jensen, L., Sanders, L., 2001. Controlled-release fertilizers for onions in the Treasure Valley. Oregon State University Agricultural Experiment Station- Special Report 1029, 84-89.
    15. Maynard, D.N., Hochmuth, G.J., 2007. Knott's Handbook for Vegetable Growers, 5th edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    16. Mulkey, J.R., Albach, E.L., Dainello, F.J., 1979. Response of onions to P placement. Agronomy Journal 71, 1037-1040.
    17. Sharangi, A.B., Sahu, P.K., 2009. Effect of placement and dose of phosphatic fertilizers on onion. Journal of Plant Nutrition 32, 1901-1913.
    18. Smith, R., Biscaro, A., Cahn, M., Daugovish, O., Natwick, Nunez, J., ... Turini, T., 2011. Fresh-market bulb onion production in California. UC ANR Publication 7242.
    19. Smith, R., Cahn, M., Cantwell, M., Koike, S., Natwick, E., Takele, E., 2011b. Green onion production in California.
    20. Stone, D.A., 1998. The effects of 'starter' fertilization injection on the growth and yield of drilled vegetable crops in relation to soil nutrient status. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 73, 441-451.
    21. Stone, D.A., 2000. The effects of starter fertilizers on the growth and nitrogen use efficiency of onion and lettuce. Soil Use and Management 16, 42-48.
    22. Sullivan, D.M., Brown, B.D., Shock, C.C., Horneck, D.A., Stevens, R.G., Pelter, G.Q., Fiebert, E.B.G., 2001. Nutrient management for onions in the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Extension Publication 546.
    23. Thorup-Kirstensen, K., 2006. Root growth and nitrogen uptake of carrot, early cabbage, onion and lettuce following a range of green manures. Soil Use and Management 22, 29-38.
    24. Voss, R.E., Mayberry, K.S., 1999. Dehydrator bulb onion production in California. UC ANR Publication 7239.
    25. Weaver, J.E., Bruner, W.E., 1927. Root development of vegetable crops. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. New York.
    26. Zink., F.W., 1966. Studies on the growth rate and nutrient absorption of onion. Hilgardia 37, 203-218.
    TOP OF PAGE

    Potassium

    1. Bender, B.A., 1993. Onions. In: Bennett, W.F., (Ed.). Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Crop Plants. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul., MN. pp 131-135.
    2. Biscaro, A., Cahn, M., 2014. Improving irrigation and nutrient management. Garlic and Onion Symposium, Tulare, California, Feb 10, 2014.
    3. Biscaro, A., Cahn, M., Smith, R., Hartz, T., 2014. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake patterns of fresh-market onion production in southern California. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America (ASA, CSSA, and SSSA) International Annual Meetings, Long Beach CA, ASA, CSSA, and SSSA.
    4. Biscaro, A., Orloff, S., 2010. Site-specific nutrient management for onion production: Soil fertility and fertilizer usage comparison. Garlic and Onion Symposium, Tulare, California, Feb 8, 2010.
    5. Brown, B., 1997. Soil test N for predicting onion N requirements- an Idaho perspective. Proceedings of the Western Nutrient Management Conference, Salt Lake City, Utah, March 6-7, 1997. Vol 2, pp. 43-48.
    6. Brown, B., 2000. Southern Idaho Fertilizer Guide for Onions. University of Idaho Cooperative Extension.
    7. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
    8. Hartz, T.K., 2007. Soil testing for nutrient availability: procedures and interpretation for California Vegetable Crop Production.
    9. Horneck, D.A., 2004. Nutrient management for onions in the Pacific Northwest. Better Crops 88, 14016.
    10. Fritz, V.A., Tong, C.B., Rosen, C.J., Wright, J.A., 2010. Yellow storage onions- vegetable crop management. University of Minnesota Extension. Accessed January, 2016.
    11. Greenwood, D.J., Gerwitz, A., Stone, D.A., Barnes, A., 1982. Root development of vegetable crops. Plant and Soil 68, 75-96.
    12. Maynard, D.N., Hochmuth, G.J., 2007. Knott's Handbook for Vegetable Growers, 5th edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    13. Smith, R., Biscaro, A., Cahn, M., Daugovish, O., Natwick, Nunez, J., ... Turini, T., 2011a. Fresh-market bulb onion production in California. UC ANR Publication 7242.
    14. Smith, R., Cahn, M., Cantwell, M., Koike, S., Natwick, E., Takele, E., 2011b. Green onion production in California.
    15. Stone, D.A., 1998. The effects of 'starter' fertilization injection on the growth and yield of drilled vegetable crops in relation to soil nutrient status. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 73, 441-451.
    16. Sullivan, D.M., Brown, B.D., Shock, C.C., Horneck, D.A., Stevens, R.G., Pelter, G.Q., Fiebert, E.B.G., 2001. Nutrient management for onions in the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Extension Publication 546.
    17. Thorup-Kirstensen, K., 2006. Root growth and nitrogen uptake of carrot, early cabbage, onion and lettuce following a range of green manures. Soil Use and Management 22, 29-38.
    18. Voss, R.E., Mayberry, K.S., 1999. Dehydrator bulb onion production in California. UC ANR Publication 7239.
    19. Weaver, J.E., Bruner, W.E., 1927. Root development of vegetable crops. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. New York.
    20. Zink, F.W., 1966. Studies on the growth rate and nutrient absorption of onion. Hilgardia 37, 203-218.
    TOP OF PAGE