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  • Additional Information:

  • Peach, Nectarine Nitrogen Uptake and Partitioning
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  • Links:

  • UC Fruit & Nut Research and Information Center
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  • UC Integrated Pest Management for Nectarine
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  • California Fertilization Guidelines

    Peach and Nectarine

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    Young
    Trees
    Dormancy
    Winter
    Bloom
    Spring
    Fruit Development
    Summer
    Post-Harvest
    Fall

    Nitrogen (N)   

     

    Soil Test

    Tissue Analysis

     N to Young Trees

      Soil Applied N

    Foliar N

    X

    Phosphorus (P2O5)   

     

    Soil Test

    Tissue Analysis

    P to Young Trees

    Soil Applied P

    Foliar P

    X

    Potassium (K2O)   

     

    Soil Test

    Tissue Analysis

    K to Young Trees

      Soil Applied K

    Foliar K

    X

    Zinc (Zn)   

     

    Soil Test

    Tissue Analysis

    Zn to Young Trees

    Foliar Zn   

    Soil Applied Zn

    X


    TOP OF PAGE

    References:


    Nitrogen

    1. Adaskaveg, J.E., Schnabel, G., Forster, H., 2008. Diseases of peach caused by fungi and fungal-like organisms: biology, epidemiology and management. In: Layne, D.R., Bassi, D., (Ed.). The Peach: Botany, Production and Uses. CAB International, Oxfordshire, UK. pp. 352-406.
    2. Andris, H., Johnson, R.S., Day, K., 1995. Evaluation of alternatives to soil applied leachable nitrogen. California Tree Fruit Agreement Research Report.
    3. Beutel, J., Uriu, K., Lilleland, O., 1976. Leaf analysis for California deciduous fruits. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.) Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 15-17.
    4. Cao, T., Duncan, R.A., Kirkpatrick, B., Shackel, K., DeJOng, T.M., 2013. Effect of calcium and nitrogen fertilization on bacterial canker susceptibility in stone fruits. Fruits 68, 245-254.
    5. Cao, T., McKencry, M.V., Duncan, R.A., DeJong, T.M., Kirkpatrick, B.C., Shackel, K.A., 2006. Influence of Ring Nematode Infestation and Calcium, Nitrogen and Indoleacetic Acid Application on Peach Susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Phytopathology 96, 608-615.
    6. Daane, K.M., Johnson, R.S., Michilaides, T.J., Crisosto, C.H., Dlott, J.W., Ramirez, H.T ... Morgan, D.P., 1995. Excess nitrogen raises nectarine susceptibility to disease and insects. California Agriculture 49, 13-18.
    7. Day, K.R., 2004. Improving the quality of stone fruits-- grower considerations. Tulare County Orchard Notes, May/June 2004.
    8. Day, K.R., DeJong, T., Johnson, R.S., 2015. University of California Fruit Report. Regents of the University of California.
    9. Doll, D., 2011. Fertilizing young almond trees - a few tips.
    10. Duncan, R., 2004. Fall foliar urea for bacterial canker management. The Scoop on Fruits and Nuts in Stanislaus County, October 2004.
    11. Duncan, R., 2007. Fall foliar sprays for peaches and almonds.
    12. El-Jendoubi, H., Abadìa, J., Abadìa, A., 2013. Assessment of nutrient removal in bearing peach trees (Prunus persica L., Batsch) based on whole tree analysis. Plant and Soil 369, 421-437.
    13. Furuya, S., Umemiya, Y., 2002. The influence of chemical forms on foliar- applied nitrogen absorption for peach trees. Acta Horticulturae 594, 97-103.
    14. Hasey, J., 2003. Mid-summer Updates. Sutter-Yuba Counties Orchard Notes, July 2003.
    15. Holtz, B., 2010. Fertilizing one-year old trees - Be careful!
    16. Johnson, R.S., 2004. Peach Tree Nutrition. Sutter-Yuba Counties Orchard Notes, July/August 2004.
    17. Johnson, R.S., 2008. Nutrient and water requirements of peach trees. In: Layne, D.R., Bassi, D., (Ed.). The Peach: Botany, Production and Uses. CAB International, Oxfordshire, UK. pp. 303-331.
    18. Johnson, R.S., Andris, H., Day, K., Beede, R., 2006. Using dormant shoots to determine the nutritional status of peach trees. Acta Horticulturae 721, 285-290.
    19. Johnson, R.S., Olivos, A., Xiaoqiong, Q., Crisosto, C., Michilaides, 2013. Proper nectarine nutrition improves fruit quality. Better Crops 97, 12-13.
    20. Johnson, R.S., Phene, C.J., Handley, D., Cochran, B., Handley, S., Wiley, P., 1997. Influence of irrigation management on nitrogen use efficiency, nitrate movement and ground water quality in a peach orchard. FREP final report.
    21. Johnson, R.S., Rosecrance, R., Andris, H.A., Brown, P., Weinbaum, S., 1998. Using high rates of foliar urea to replace soil applied fertilizer in early maturing peaches . FREP final report.

    22. TOP OF PAGE

    23. Johnson, R.S., Rosecrance, R., Weinbaum, S., Andris, H., Wang, J., 2001. Can we approach complete dependence on foliar-applied urea nitrogen in an early- maturing peach? Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 126, 364-370.
    24. Johnson, R.S., Uriu, K., 1989. Mineral nutrition. In: LaRue, J.H., Johnson, R.S. (Eds.). Peaches, Plums and Nectarines: Growing and Handling for the Fresh Market. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3331. pp. 68-81.
    25. Jordan, M.-O., Vercambre, G., Gomez, L., Pagès, L., 2014. The early spring N uptake of young peach trees (Prunus persica) is affected by past and current fertilizations and levels of C and N stores. Tree Physiology 34, 61-72.
    26. Krige, G.T., Stassen, P.J.C., 2008. Mineral nutrient distribution and requirement of pulse drip fertigated 'Donnarine' nectarine trees. Acta Horticulturae 772, 355-360.
    27. LaRue, J.H., 1989. Establishing the orchard. In: LaRue, J.H., Johnson, R.S. (Eds.). Peaches, Plums and Nectarines: Growing and Handling for the Fresh Market. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3331. pp. 21-30.
    28. Muñoz, N., Guerri, J., Legaz, F., Primo-Julio, E., 1993. Season uptake of 15N-nitrate and distribution of absorbed nitrogen in peach trees. Plant and Soil, 150, 263-269.
    29. Natural Resource Conservation Service Crop Nutrient Tool. Accessed April 2015.
    30. Neilsen, G.H., Neilsen, D., Peryea, F., 1999. Response of soil and irrigated fruit trees to fertigation or broadcast application of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. HortTechnology 9, 393-401.
    31. Niederholzer, F., 2011. Using urea efficiently.
    32. Niederholzer, 2012. Summer leaf sampling is serious business.
    33. Niederholzer, 2013. Efficient nitrogen management in prune production . Sacramento Valley Regional Prune Newsletter, April 2013.
    34. Niederholzer, F.J.A., DeJong, T.M., Saenz, J.-L., Muraoka, T.T., Weinbaum, S.A., 2001. Effectiveness of fall versus spring soil fertilization of field-grown peach trees. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 125, 644- 648.
    35. Norton, M., Duncan, R., Hasey, H., 2007. Growing processing cling peaches in California: an overview. University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 8276.
    36. Policarpo, M., De Marco, L., Caruso, T., Gioacchini, P., Tagliavini, M., 2002. Dynamics of nitrogen uptake and partitioning in early and late fruit ripening peach (Prunus persica) tree genotypes under a Mediterranean climate. Plant and Soil 239, 207-2014.
    37. Reil, W., Duncan, R., 2002. Tree planting tips for almonds and stonefruit.
    38. Rubio-Covarrubias, O.A., Brown, P.H., Weinbaum, S.A., Johnson, R.S., Cabrera, R.I., 2009. Evaluating foliar nitrogen compounds as indicators of nitrogen status in Prunus persica trees. Scientiae Horticulturae 120, 27-33.
    39. Rufat, J., DeJong, T.M., 2001. Estimating seasonal nitrogen dynamics in peach trees in response to nitrogen availability. Tree Physiology 21, 1133–1140.
    40. Saenz, J.-L., DeJong, T.M., Weinbaum, S.A., 1997. Nitrogen stimulated increases in peach yields are associated with extended fruit development period and increased fruit sink capacity. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 122, 772-777.
    41. Tagliavini, M., Marangoni, B., 2002. Major nutritional issues in deciduous fruit orchards of Northern Italy. HortTechnology 12, 26-31.
    42. Ventura, M., Scandellari, F., Bonora, E., Tagliavini, M., 2010. Nutrient release during decomposition of leaf litter in a peach (Prunus persica L.) orchard. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 87, 115-125.
    43. USDA NASS. Quickstats. (Accessed April, 2015)
    44. Zasosky, R.J., 1994. Nitrogen efficiency in drip irrigated almonds. FREP final report.

    TOP OF PAGE

    Phosphorus

    1. Beutel, J., Uriu, K., Lilleland, O., 1976. Leaf analysis for California deciduous fruits. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.) Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 15-17.
    2. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9 th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
    3. Day, K.R., DeJong, T., Johnson, R.S., 2015. University of California Fruit Report. Regents of the University of California.
    4. Doll, D., 2011. Fertilizing young almond trees - a few tips.
    5. El-Jendoubi, H., Abadìa, J., Abadìa, A., 2013. Assessment of nutrient removal in bearing peach trees (Prunus persica L., Batsch) based on whole tree analysis. Plant and Soil 369, 421-437.
    6. Fulton, A., 2010. Understanding and applying information from a soil test: Part 2 - NPK.
    7. Glenn, D.M., Welker, W.V., 1993. Root development patterns in field grown peach trees. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 118, 362- 365.
    8. Johnson, R.S., 2004. Peach Tree Nutrition. Sutter-Yuba Counties Orchard Notes, July/August 2004.
    9. Johnson, R.S., 2008. Nutrient and water requirements of peach trees. In: Layne, D.R., Bassi, D., (Ed.). The Peach: Botany, Production and Uses. CAB International, Oxfordshire, UK. pp. 303-331.
    10. Johnson, R.S., Andris, H., Day, K., Beede, R., 2006. Using dormant shoots to determine the nutritional status of peach trees. Acta Horticulturae 721, 285-290.
    11. Johnson, R.S., Crisosto, C.H., Andris, H.L., Beede, R.H., Day, K.R., Holtz, B.A., 2005. Refining stone fruit deficiency and sufficiency nutrient levels. Presented at the 2005 California Plant and Soil Conference, Modesto, CA.
    12. Johnson, R.S., Crisosto, C., Andris, H., Day, K., Holtz, B., Beede, B., Klassen, K., 2003. The effect of nutrient deficiencies on stone fruit production and quality. FREP final report.
    13. Johnson, R.S., Olivos, A., Xiaoqiong, Q., Crisosto, C., Michilaides, 2013. Proper nectarine nutrition improves fruit quality.
    14. Johnson, R.S., Phene, C.J., Handley, D., Cochran, B., Handley, S., Wiley, P., 1997. Influence of irrigation management on nitrogen use efficiency, nitrate movement and ground water quality in a peach orchard. FREP final report.
    15. Johnson, R.S., Uriu, K., 1989. Mineral nutrition. In: LaRue, J.H., Johnson, R.S. (Eds.). Peaches, Plums and Nectarines: Growing and Handling for the Fresh Market. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3331. pp. 68-81.
    16. Krige, G.T., Stassen, P.J.C., 2008. Mineral nutrient distribution and requirement of pulse drip fertigated 'Donnarine' nectarine trees. Acta Horticulturae 772, 355-360.
    17. Lilleland, O., Brown, J.G., 1939. The phosphate nutrition of fruit trees II. Continued response to phosphate applied at the time of planting. Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science 37, 53-57.
    18. Lilleland, O., Brown, J.G., 1942. The phosphate nutrition of fruit trees IV: The phosphate content of peach leaves from 130 orchards in California and some factors which may influence it. Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science 41, 1-10.
    19. Lilleland, O., Brown, J.G., Conrad, J.P., 1942. The phosphate nutrition of fruit trees III: Comparison of fruit tree and field crop responses on a phosphate deficient soil. Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science 40, 1-7.
    20. Natural Resource Conservation Service Crop Nutrient Tool. Accessed April 2015.
    21. Neilsen, G.H., Hogue, E.J., Yorston, J., 1990. Response of fruit trees to phosphorus fertilization. Acta Horticulturae 274, 347-359.
    22. Neilsen, D., Parchomchuk, P., Hogue, E.J., 1993. Soil and peach seedling responses to soluble phosphorus applied in single or multiple doses. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 24, 881-898.
    23. Niederholzer, 2012. Summer leaf sampling is serious business.
    24. Peacock, W.L., 1989. The use of soil and water analysis. In: LaRue, J.H., Johnson, R.S. (Eds.). Peaches, Plums and Nectarines: Growing and Handling for the Fresh Market. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3331. pp.62-67.
    25. Rombolà, A.D., Sorrenti, G., Marodin, G.A.B., De Pieri, A.Z., Barca, E., 2012. Nutrient and soil management in stone fruit trees in temperate regions. Semina-Ciencias Agrarias 33 639-654.
    26. Taylor, B.K., 1975. Response of newly planted peach and apple trees to superphosphate. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 26, 521-528.
    27. Taylor, B.K., Issell, L.G., 1976. Comparative effects of foliar- and root- applied phosphorus on one-year-old peach trees. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 16, 596-599.
    28. Ventura, M., Scandellari, F., Bonora, E., Tagliavini, M., 2010. Nutrient release during decomposition of leaf litter in a peach (Prunus persica L.) orchard. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 87, 115-125.
    TOP OF PAGE

    Potassium

    1. Beutel, J., Uriu, K., Lilleland, O., 1976. Leaf analysis for California deciduous fruits. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.) Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 15-17.
    2. Boland, A. -M., Mitchell, P.D., Jerie, P.H., 1993. Effect of saline water combined with restricted irrigation on peach tree growth and water use. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 44, 799-816.
    3. Connell, J., 2010. Late fall, a time for potassium soil applications.
    4. Day, K.R., DeJong, T., Johnson, R.S., 2015. University of California Fruit Report. Regents of the University of California.
    5. Doll, D., 2011. Fertilizing young almond trees - a few tips.
    6. Duncan, R., 2005. Fall nutrition for almonds and stonefruit. The Scoop on Fruits and Nuts in Stanislaus County, October 2005.
    7. El-Jendoubi, H., H., Abadìa, J., Abadìa, A., 2013. Assessment of nutrient removal in bearing peach trees (Prunus persica L., Batsch) based on whole tree analysis. Plant and Soil 369, 421-437.
    8. Fulton, A., 2010. Understanding and applying information from a soil test: Part 2 - NPK.
    9. Ghanem, M., Ben Mimoun, M., 2010. Effects of potassium foliar sprays on Royal Glory peach trees. Acta Horticulturae 868, 261-266.
    10. Glenn, D.M., Welker, W.V., 1993. Root development patterns in field grown peach trees. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 118, 362- 365.
    11. Hoffman, G.J., Catlin, P.B., Mead, R.M., Johnson, R.S., Francois, L.E., Goldhamer, D., 1989. Yield and foliar injury responses of mature plum trees to salinity. Irrigation Science 1989, 215-229.
    12. Johnson, R.S., 2004. Peach Tree Nutrition. Sutter-Yuba Counties Orchard Notes, July/August 2004.
    13. Johnson, R.S., Phene, C.J., Handley, D., Cochran, B., Handley, S., Wiley, P., 1997. Influence of irrigation management on nitrogen use efficiency, nitrate movement and ground water quality in a peach orchard. FREP final report.
    14. Johnson, R.S., Uriu, K., 1989. Mineral nutrition. In: LaRue, J.H., Johnson, R.S. (Eds.). Peaches, Plums and Nectarines: Growing and Handling for the Fresh Market. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3331. pp. 68-81.
    15. Krige, G.T., Stassen, P.J.C., 2008. Mineral nutrient distribution and requirement of pulse drip fertigated 'Donnarine' nectarine trees. Acta Horticulturae 772, 355-360.
    16. Lilleland, O., Uriu, K., Muraoka, T., Pearson, J., 1962. The relationship of potassium in the peach leaf to fruit growth and size at harvest. Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science 81, 162-167.
    17. Natural Resource Conservation Service Crop Nutrient Tool. Accessed April 2015.
    18. Neilsen, G.H., Neilsen, D., Peryea, F., 1999. Response of soil and irrigated fruit trees to fertigation or broadcast application of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. HortTechnology 9, 393-401.
    19. Niederholzer, 2012. Summer leaf sampling is serious business.
    20. Peacock, W.L., 1989. The use of soil and water analysis. In: LaRue, J.H., Johnson, R.S. (Eds.). Peaches, Plums and Nectarines: Growing and Handling for the Fresh Market. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3331. pp.62-67.
    21. Reuveni, M., Reuveni, R., 2002. Mono-potassium phosphate fertilizer (PeaK)-- a component in integrated control of powdery mildews in fruit trees and grapevines. Acta Horticulturae 594, 619-625.
    22. Rombolà, A.D., Sorrenti, G., Marodin, G.A.B., De Pieri, A.Z., Barca, E., 2012. Nutrient and soil management in stone fruit trees in temperate regions. Semina-Ciencias Agrarias 33 639-654.
    23. Ruiz, 2006., Effects of different potassium fertilizer on yield, fruit quality and nutritional status of 'Fairlane' nectarine trees and on soil fertility. Acta Horticulturae 721, 185-190.
    24. Sotiropoulos, T., Therios,I., Nikolaos, V., 2010. Effect of various foliar sprays on some fruit quality attributes and leaf nutritional status of the peach cultivar 'Andross'. Journal of Plant Nutrition 33, 471-484.
    25. Stassen, P.J.C., Stadler, J.D., 1988. Seasonal uptake of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium by young peach trees. South African Journal of Plant and Soil 5, 19-23.
    26. Weinbaum, S.A., Brown, P.H., Johnson, R.S., 2002. Application of selected macronutrients (N,K) in deciduous orchards: physiological and agrotechnical perspectives. Acta Horticulturae 594, 59-64.
    27. Wooldridge, J., 2006. Effect of extending the early season potassium supply on young 'Keisie' canning peach trees on sandy, infertile soil. South African Journal of Plant and Soil 23, 212-214.
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    Zinc

    1. Andris, H., Johnson, R.S., Day, K., 1995. Evaluation of alternatives to soil applied leachable nitrogen. California Tree Fruit Agreement Research Report.
    2. Beutel, J., Uriu, K., Lilleland, O., 1976. Leaf analysis for California deciduous fruits. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.) Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 15-17.
    3. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9 th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
    4. Castagnoli, S.P., DeJong, T.M., Weinbaum, S.A., Johnson, R.S., 1990. Autumn foliage applications of ZnSO4 reduced leaf nitrogen remobilization in peach and nectarine. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 115, 79-83.
    5. Duncan, R., 2005. Fall nutrition for almonds and stonefruit. The Scoop on Fruits and Nuts in Stanislaus County, October 2005.
    6. Duncan, 2007. Fall foliar sprays for peaches and almonds.
    7. Day, K.R., DeJong, T., Johnson, R.S., 2015. University of California Fruit Report. Regents of the University of California.
    8. Johnson, R.S., 2004. Peach Tree Nutrition. Sutter-Yuba Counties Orchard Notes, July/August 2004.
    9. Johnson, 2009. Cost effective zinc nutrition. Presented at the North San Joaquin Valley Cling Peach Day, Modesto CA, 2009.
    10. Johnson, R.S., 2012. Adding zinc to the planting hole of peach trees.
    11. Johnson, R.S., Andris, H., Day, K., Beede, R., 2006. Using dormant shoots to determine the nutritional status of peach trees. Acta Horticulturae 721, 285-290.
    12. Johnson, R.S., Crisosto, C.H., Andris, H.L., Beede, R.H., Day, K.R., Holtz, B.A., 2005. Refining stone fruit deficiency and sufficiency nutrient levels. Presented at the 2005 California Plant and Soil Conference, Modesto, CA.
    13. Johnson, R.S., Crisosto, C., Andris, H., Day, K., Holtz, B., Beede, B., Klassen, K., 2003. The effect of nutrient deficiencies on stone fruit production and quality. FREP final report.
    14. Johnson, R.S., Saa, S., Brown, P.H., 2013. Testing the effectiveness of zinc formulations using peach seedlings. Acta Horticulturae 984, 125-130.
    15. Johnson, R.S., Uriu, K., 1989. Mineral nutrition. In: LaRue, J.H., Johnson, R.S. (Eds.). Peaches, Plums and Nectarines: Growing and Handling for the Fresh Market. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3331. pp. 68-81.
    16. Niederholzer, 2012. Summer leaf sampling is serious business.
    17. Norton, M., Duncan, R., Hasey, H., 2007. Growing processing cling peaches in California: an overview. University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 8267.
    18. Swietlik, D., 2002. Zinc nutrition of fruit crops. HortTechnology 12, 45-50.
    TOP OF PAGE