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  • Safflower Nitrogen Uptake and Partitioning
  • Safflower Production in California


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    Safflower

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    Preplant
    Sowing
    Stem
    Elongation
    Branching
    Flowering
    Maturity

    Nitrogen (N)   

     

    Soil Test

    Plant Analysis

     Preplant N

    Starter N

      Sidedress N

    Foliar N

    X

    Phosphorus (P2O5)   

     

    Soil Test

    Plant Analysis

    Preplant / Starter P

    In-season P

    X

    Potassium (K2O)   

     

    Soil Test

    Plant Analysis

    Preplant K

    Starter K

    In-season K

    Foliar K

    X


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    References:


    Nitrogen

    1. Bassil, E.S., Kaffka, S.R., Hutmacher, R.A., 2002. Response of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to residual soil N following cotton (Gossypium spp.) in rotation in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Journal of Agricultural Science 138, 395-402.
    2. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
    3. Cavero, J., Plant, R.E., Shennan, C., Friedman, D.B., Williams, J.R., Kiniry, J.R., Benson, V.W., 1999. Modeling nitrogen cycling in tomato-safflower and tomato-wheat rotations. Agricultural Systems 60, 123-125.
    4. Dahnke, W.C., Fanning, C., Cattanach, A., 1992. Fertilizing safflower. North Dakota State University publication SF-727.
    5. Dordas, C.A., Sioulas, C., 2009. Dry matter and nitrogen accumulation, partitioning, and retranslocation in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) as affected by nitrogen fertilization. Field Crops Research 110, 35-43.
    6. Gilbert, N.W., Tucker, T.C., 1967. Growth, yields, and yield components of safflower as affected by source, rate, and time of application of nitrogen. Agronomy Journal 59, 54-56.
    7. Grunes, D.L., 1959. Effect of nitrogen on the availability of soil and fertilizer phosphorus to plants. Advances in Agronomy 11, 369-396.
    8. Henderson, D.W., 1962. Root development of safflower. California Agriculture 16(4), 11-11.
    9. Jabeen, N., Ahmad, R., 2011. Foliar application of potassium nitrate affects the growth and nitrate reductase activity in sunflower and safflower leaves under salinity. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 39, 172- 178.
    10. Jones, J.P., Tucker, T.C., 1968. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on yield, nitrogen content, and yield components of safflower. Agronomy Journal 60, 363-364.
    11. Kaffka, S.R., Kearney, T.E., 1998. Safflower production in California. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 21565.
    12. Koutroubas, S.D., Papakosta, D.K., Doitsinis, A., 2004. Cultivar and seasonal effects on the contribution of pre- anthesis assimilates to safflower yield. Field Crops Research 90, 263-274.
    13. Krantz, B.A., Broadbent, F.E., Williams, W.A., Baghott, K.G., Ingebretsen, K.H., Stanley, M.E., 1968. Research with nitrogen fertilizer emphasizes: fertilizer crop, not crop residue. California Agriculture 22(8), 6-8.
    14. Kumar, P., Sharma, M.J., 2013. Nutrient Deficiencies of Field Crops: Guide to Diagnosis and Management. CAB International, Boston, MA, USA.
    15. Lorenz, O.A., Tyler, K.B., 1976. Plant tissue analysis of vegetable crops. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.). Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, Bulletin 1879. pp. 24-29.
    16. Merrill, S.D., Tanaka, D.L., Hanson, J.D., 2002. Root length growth of eight crop species in Haplustoll soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66, 913-923.
    17. Pace, M.G., Israelsen, C.E., Creech, E., Allen, N., 2015. Growing safflower in Utah. Utah State University Extension.
    18. Smith, J., 1996. Safflower. AOCS Press, Champaign, Illinois, USA.
    19. Steer, B.T., Harrigan, E.K.S., 1986. Rates of nitrogen supply during different developmental stages affect yield components of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Field Crops Research 14, 221-231.
    20. Werkhoven, C.H.E., Ingebretsen, K.H., Kearney, T.E., Buschmann, L.L., Sailsbery, R.L., Miller, M.D., Krantz, B.A., 1968. Fertilizer trials with safflower in Sacramento Valley. California Agriculture 22(1), 6-7.
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    Phosphorus

    1. Abbadi, J., Gerendás, J., 2015. Phosphorus use efficiency of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Journal of Plant Nutrition 38, 1121-1142.
    2. Bassil, E.S., Kaffka, S.R., Hutmacher, R.A., 2002. Response of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to residual soil N following cotton (Gossypium spp.) in rotation in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Journal of Agricultural Science 138, 395-402.
    3. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
    4. Dahnke, W.C., Fanning, C., Cattanach, A., 1992. Fertilizing safflower. North Dakota State University publication SF-727.
    5. Geisseler, D., Miyao, G., 2016. Soil testing for P and K has value in nutrient management for annual crops. California Agriculture 70(3), 152-159.
    6. Grunes, D.L., 1959. Effect of nitrogen on the availability of soil and fertilizer phosphorus to plants. Advances in Agronomy 11, 369-396.
    7. Henderson, D.W., 1962. Root development of safflower. California Agriculture 16(4), 11-11.
    8. Jones, C., Olson-Rutz, K., Pariera Dinkins, C., 2011. Nutrient uptake timing by crops to assist with fertilizing decisions. Montana State University Extension EB0191.
    9. Kaffka, S.R., Kearney, T.E., 1998. Safflower production in California. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 21565.
    10. Lorenz, O.A., Tyler, K.B., 1976. Plant tissue analysis of vegetable crops. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.). Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, Bulletin 1879. pp. 24-29.
    11. Lopez-Bucio, J., Cruz-Ramirez, A., Herrera- Estrella, L., 2003. The role of nutrient availability in regulating root architecture. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 6, 280-287.
    12. Martin, W.E., Sailsbery, R.L., Brandon, M., Petersen, R.T., 1971. Answering the riddle of poor safflower after rice: banded phosphorus may be the solution. California Agriculture 25(9), 4-6.
    13. Merrill, S.D., Tanaka, D.L., Hanson, J.D., 2002. Root length growth of eight crop species in Haplustoll soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66, 913-923.
    14. Mündel, H.-H., Blackshaw, R.E., Byers, J.R., Huang, H.C., Johnson, D.L., Keon, R., Kubik, J., McKenzie, R., Otto, B., Roth, B., Stanford, K., 2004. Safflower production on the Canadian prairies: revisited in 2004. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.
    15. Pace, M.G., Israelsen, C.E., Creech, E., Allen, N., 2015. Growing safflower in Utah. Utah State University Extension.
    16. Smith, J., 1996. Safflower. AOCS Press, Champaign, Illinois, USA.
    17. Werkhoven, C.H.E., Ingebretsen, K.H., Kearney, T.E., Buschmann, L.L., Sailsbery, R.L., Miller, M.D., Krantz, B.A., 1968. Fertilizer trials with safflower in Sacramento Valley. California Agriculture 22(1), 6-7.
    18. Werkhoven, C.H.E., Massantini, F., 1967. Effect of phosphorus and nitrogen placement on safflower growth and phosphorus absorption. Agronomy Journal 59, 169-171.
    TOP OF PAGE

    Potassium

    1. Bailey, L.D., Soper, R.J. , 1985. Potassium nutrition of rape, flax, sunflower and safflower. In: Munson, R.D. (ed.) Potassium in Agriculture. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, pp. 765-798.
    2. Bassil, E., Kaffka, S.R., 2002. Response of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to saline soils and irrigation. II. Crop response to salinity. Agricultural Water Management 54, 81- 92.
    3. Bassil, E.S., Kaffka, S.R., Hutmacher, R.A., 2002. Response of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to residual soil N following cotton (Gossypium spp.) in rotation in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Journal of Agricultural Science 138, 395-402.
    4. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
    5. Dahnke, W.C., Fanning, C., Cattanach, A., 1992. Fertilizing safflower. North Dakota State University publication SF-727.
    6. Geisseler, D., Miyao, G., 2016. Soil testing for P and K has value in nutrient management for annual crops. California Agriculture 70(3), 152-159.
    7. Gerendás, J., Abbadi, J., Sattelmacher, B., 2008. Potassium efficiency of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 171, 431-439.
    8. Henderson, D.W., 1962. Root development of safflower. California Agriculture 16(4), 11-11.
    9. Jabeen, N., Ahmad, R., 2011. Foliar application of potassium nitrate affects the growth and nitrate reductase activity in sunflower and safflower leaves under salinity. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 39, 172- 178.
    10. Jones, C., Olson-Rutz, K., Pariera Dinkins, C., 2011. Nutrient uptake timing by crops to assist with fertilizing decisions. Montana State University Extension EB0191.
    11. Kaffka, S.R., Kearney, T.E., 1998. Safflower production in California. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 21565.
    12. Kumar, P., Sharma, M.J., 2013. Nutrient Deficiencies of Field Crops: Guide to Diagnosis and Management. CAB International, Boston, MA, USA.
    13. Lorenz, O.A., Tyler, K.B., 1976. Plant tissue analysis of vegetable crops. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.). Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, Bulletin 1879. pp. 24-29.
    14. Murashkina, M., Southard, R.J., Pettygrove, G.S., O'Geen, A.T., 2000. Can we predict K fixation in the San Joaquin Valley from soil texture and mineralogy? FREP Final Report.
    15. Mündel, H.-H., Blackshaw, R.E., Byers, J.R., Huang, H.C., Johnson, D.L., Keon, R., Kubik, J., McKenzie, R., Otto, B., Roth, B., Stanford, K., 2004. Safflower production on the Canadian prairies: revisited in 2004. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.
    16. Pace, M.G., Israelsen, C.E., Creech, E., Allen, N., 2015. Growing safflower in Utah. Utah State University Extension.
    17. Werkhoven, C.H.E., Ingebretsen, K.H., Kearney, T.E., Buschmann, L.L., Sailsbery, R.L., Miller, M.D., Krantz, B.A., 1968. Fertilizer trials with safflower in Sacramento Valley. California Agriculture 22(1), 6-7.
    TOP OF PAGE