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    Wheat

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    Preplant
    Sowing
    Tillering
    Stem
    Elongation
    Heading
    Ripening

    Nitrogen (N)   

     

    Soil Test

    Plant Analysis

     Preplant N

    Starter N

      Topdress N

    Foliar N

    X

    Phosphorus (P2O5)   

     

    Soil Test

    Plant Analysis

    Preplant / Starter P

    Topdress P

    Foliar P

    X

    Potassium (K2O)   

     

    Soil Test

    Plant Analysis

    Preplant K

    Starter K

    Topdress K

    Foliar K

    X


    TOP OF PAGE

    References:


    Nitrogen

    1. Aksland, G., 2012. Milling wheat fertility management. Proceedings of the 42nd California Alfalfa Forage Symposium, 2012.
    2. Bali, K., 2011. Wheat fertilization practices in the Imperial Valley. 2010-11 California Wheat Commission Research Report.
    3. Bali, K., 2012. Wheat fertilization practices in the Imperial Valley. 2011-12 California Wheat Commission Research Report.
    4. Blue, W.G., Eno, C.F., 1954. Distribution and retention of anhydrous ammonia in sandy soils. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 18, 420-424.
    5. Bly, A.G., Woodard, H.J., 2003. Foliar nitrogen application timing influence on grain yield and protein concentration of hard red winter and spring wheat. Agronomy Journal 95, 335–338.
    6. Bouwmeester, R.J.B., Vlek, P.L.G., Stumpe, J.M., 1985. Effect of environmental factors on ammonia volatilization from a urea fertilized soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal 49, 376–381.
    7. Brittan, K.L., 2001. 2001 Yolo / Solano / Sacramento wheat and barley production.
    8. Brittan, K.L., 2003. 2003 Yolo / Solano / Sacramento wheat and barley production.
    9. Brittan, K.L., 2012. 2011-12 Southern Sacramento Valley small grains research program. Hard red wheat protein enhancement by midseason urea application.
    10. Brown, B.D., Petrie, S., 2006. Irrigated hard winter wheat response to fall, spring, and late season applied nitrogen. Field Crops Research 96, 260–268.
    11. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
    12. Fageria, N.K., Barbosa Filho, M.P., Moreira, A., Guimarães, C.M., 2009. Foliar fertilization of crop plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition 32, 1044-1064.
    13. Fernández, F.G., Nafziger, E.D., Ebelhar, S.A., Hoeft, R.G., 2012. Managing nitrogen. University of Illinois Extension & Outreach. Illinois Agronomy Handbook.
    14. Gooding, M.J., Davies, W.P., 1992. Foliar urea fertilization of cereals: A review. Fertilizer Research 32, 209-222.
    15. Halvorson, AD., Alley, M.M., Murphy, L.S., 1987. Nutrient requirements and fertilizer use. In: Heyne, E.G. (Ed.). Wheat and Wheat Improvement. Agronomy Monographs 13. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America. Madison, WI. pp. 345-383.
    16. Hawe, W.P., Cassman, K.G., Fulton, A., Jackson, L.F., 1989. Evaluation of tissue nitrogen tests as a prognostic tool for irrigated wheat production. Journal of Fertilizer Issues 6, 89-99.
    17. Jackson, L.F., 2001. Nitrogen fertilization and grain protein content in California wheat. FREP Final Report.
    18. Jones Jr., J.B., 1998. Field sampling procedures for conducting a plant analysis. In: Kalra, Y.P. (Ed.). Handbook of Reference Methods for Plant Analysis. CRC Press, Boca Raton. pp. 25-35.
    19. Leikam, D.F., Murphy, L.S., Kissel, D.E., Whitney, D.A., Moser, H.C., 1983. Effect of N and P application method and N sources on winter wheat grain yield and leaf tissue P. Soil Science Society of America Journal 47, 530-535.
    20. Lundy, M., Orloff, S., 2017. Topdress of nitrogen at tillering stage is something to seriously consider over the coming weeks. Universitiy of California Small Grains Blog, January 27, 2017.
    21. Linquist, B.A., Cassman, K.G., Fulton, A.E., Jackson, L.F., 1992. Late-season nitrogen may be efficient way to increase winter wheat protein. California Agriculture 46(2), 13-16.
    22. Maddux, L.D., Raczkowski, C.W., Kissel, D.E., Barnes, P.L., 1991. Broadcast and subsurface-banded urea nitrogen in urea ammonium nitrate applied to corn. Soil Science Society of America Journal 55, 264-267.
    23. Marsh, B., 2012. Use of chlorophyll meters to assess nitrogen fertilization requirements for optimum wheat grain and silage yield and quality. California Wheat Commission Research Report.
    24. Mortvedt, J.J., 1976. Band fertilizer placement – How much and how close? Fertilizer Solutions 20, 90-96.

    25. TOP OF PAGE

    26. Munier, D., Kearney, T., Pettygrove, G.S., Brittan, K., Mathews, M., Jackson, L., 2006. Fertilization of small grains. In: UC ANR (Ed.). Small Grain Production Manual. ANR Publication 8208.
    27. Orloff, S., Wright, S., 2011. Effect of nitrogen fertilization practices on spring wheat protein content. 2010-11 California Wheat Commission Research Report.
    28. Orloff, S., 2012. Effect of nitrogen fertilization practices on spring wheat yield and protein content. 2011-12 California Wheat Commission Research Report.
    29. Orloff, S., 2013. Effect of nitrogen fertilization practices on spring wheat yield and protein content. 2012-13 California Wheat Commission Research Report.
    30. Orloff, S., Wright, S., Ottman, M., 2012. Nitrogen management impacts on wheat yield and protein. Proceedings of the 42nd California Alfalfa Forage Symposium, 2012.
    31. Phillips, S.B., Mullins, G.L., 2004. Foliar burn and wheat grain yield responses following topdress-applied nitrogen and sulfur fertilizers. Journal of Plant Nutrition 27, 921-930.
    32. Robinson, F.E., Cudney, D.W., Lehman, W.F., 1979. Nitrate fertilizer timing, irrigation, protein, and yellow berry in durum wheat. Agronomy Journal 71, 304-308.
    33. Sangakkara, U.R., Cho, C.M., 1987. Effect of NH4+ nitrogen on phosphorus uptake by canola, lentils, soybeans and wheat. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 159, 199-201.
    34. Snowball, K., Robson A.D., 1991. Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Wheat - A Guide for Field Identification . CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F.
    35. Stanley, F.A., Smith, G.E., 1956. Effect of soil moisture and depth of application on retention of anhydrous ammonia. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 20, 557-561.
    36. Tremblay, N., Fallon, E., Ziadi, N., 2011. Sensing of crop nitrogen status: Opportunities, tools, limitations, and supporting information requirements. HortTechnology 21, 274-281.
    37. van den Berg, E., Labuschagne, M.T., 2012. The interaction of stem strength with plant density and nitrogen application in wheat progeny from parents with varying stem strength. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science 62, 251-255.
    38. Waldren, R.P., Flowerday, A.D., 1979. Growth stages and distribution of dry matter, N, P, and K in winter wheat. Agronomy Journal 71, 391-397.
    39. Webster, J.R., Jackson, L.F., 1993. Management practices to reduce lodging and maximize grain yield and protein content of fall-sown irrigated hard red spring wheat. Field Crops Research 33, 249-259.
    40. Wiese, M.V., 1993. Wheat and other small grains. In: Bennett, W.F. (Ed.). Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Crop Plants. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. pp. 27-33.
    41. Woolfolk, C.W., Raun, W.R., Johnson, G.V., Thomason, W.E., Mullen, R.W., Wynn, K.J., Freeman, K.W., 2002. Influence of late-season foliar nitrogen applications on yield and grain nitrogen in winter wheat. Agronomy Journal 94, 429-434.
    42. Wright, S., Fulton, A., Munier, D., Jackson, L., 2008. Mid season nitrogen fertility management in wheat and barley. University of California Cooperative Extension Kings County. Small Grain News 5(1), 1-2.
    43. Wright, S., 2013. Effect of nitrogen fertilization practices on wheat protein content in the San Joaquin Valley. 2012-13 California Wheat Commission Research Report.
    44. Wuest, S.B., Cassman, K.G., 1992a. Fertilizer-nitrogen use efficiency of irrigated wheat: I. Uptake efficiency of preplant versus late-season application. Agronomy Journal 84, 682-688.
    45. Wuest, S.B., Cassman, K.G., 1992b. Fertilizer-nitrogen use efficiency of irrigated wheat: II. Partitioning efficiency of preplant versus late-season application. Agronomy Journal 84, 689-694.
    46. Wuest, S.B., Cassman, K.G., 1992c. Effects of variations in soil water potential, depth of N placement, and cultivar on postanthesis N uptake by wheat. Plant & Soil 143, 45-53.
    47. Xue, Q., Zhu, Z., Musick, J.T., Stewart, B.A., Dusek, D.A., 2003. Root growth and water uptake in winter wheat under deficit irrigation. Plant & Soil 257, 151–161.
    TOP OF PAGE

    Phosphorus

    1. Bali, K., 2011. Wheat fertilization practices in the Imperial Valley. 2010-11 California Wheat Commission Research Report.
    2. Blackshaw, R.E., Molnar, L.J., 2009. Phosphorus fertilizer application method affects weed growth and competition with wheat. Weed Science 57, 311-318.
    3. Brandon, D.M., Mikkelsen, D.S., 1979. Phosphorus transformations in alternately flooded california soils: I. Cause of plant phosphorus deficiency in rice rotation crops and correctional methods. Soil Science of America Journal 43, 989-994.
    4. Brittan, K.L., 2003. 2003 Yolo / Solano / Sacramento wheat and barley production.
    5. Cabrera, M.L., Kissel, D.E., Whitney, D.A., 1986. Combinations of preplant-banded and seed-banded applications of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer for winter wheat production. Agronomy Journal 78, 620-625.
    6. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
    7. Chuan, L., He, P., Jin, J., Li, S., Grant, C., Xu, X., Qiu, S., Zhao, S., Zhou, W., 2013. Estimating nutrient uptake requirements for wheat in China. Field Crops Research 146, 96–104.
    8. Grant, C.A., Flaten, D.N., Tomasiewicz, D.J., Sheppard, S.C., 2001. The importance of early season phosphorus nutrition. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 81, 211–224.
    9. Green, D.R., Racz, G.J., 1999. The effect of foliar phosphate solution application on wheat yield and quality. Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Manitoba Soil Science Society Meeting, 90–96.
    10. Jones Jr., J.B., 1998. Field sampling procedures for conducting a plant analysis. In: Kalra, Y.P. (Ed.). Handbook of Reference Methods for Plant Analysis. CRC Press, Boca Raton. pp. 25-35.
    11. Leikam, D.F., Murphy, L.S., Kissel, D.E., Whitney, D.A., Moser, H.C., 1983. Effect of N and P application method and N sources on winter wheat grain yield and leaf tissue P. Soil Science Society of America Journal 47, 530-535.
    12. Matar, A.E., Brown, S.C., 1989. Effect of rate and method of phosphate placement on productivity of durum wheat in Mediterranean environments I. Crop yields and P uptake. Fertilizer Research 20, 75-82.
    13. McBeath, T.M., McLaughlin, M.J., Noack SR., 2011. Wheat grain yield response to and translocation of foliar-applied phosphorus. Crop & Pasture Science 62, 58–65.
    14. Mortvedt, J.J., 1976. Band fertilizer placement – How much and how close? Fertilizer Solutions 20, 90-96.
    15. Mosali, J., Desta, K., Teal, R.K., Freeman, K.W., Martin, K.L., Lawles, J.W., Raun, W.R., 2006. Effect of foliar application of phosphorus on winter wheat grain yield, phosphorus uptake, and use efficiency. Journal of Plant Nutrition 29, 2147-2163.
    16. Munier, D., Kearney, T., Pettygrove, G.S., Brittan, K., Mathews, M., Jackson, L., 2006. Fertilization of small grains. In: UC ANR (Ed.). Small Grain Production Manual. ANR Publication 8208.
    17. Randall, G.W., Hoeft, R.G., 1988. Placement methods for improved efficiency of P and K fertilizers: A review. Journal of Production Agriculture 1, 70-78.
    18. Reisenauer, H.M., Quick, J., Voss, R.E., 1976. Soil test interpretive guides. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.). Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 38-40.
    19. Sangakkara, U.R., Cho, C.M., 1987. Effect of NH4+ nitrogen on phosphorus uptake by canola, lentils, soybeans and wheat. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 159, 199-201.
    20. Sheppard, S.C., Racz, C.J., 1985. Shoot and root response of wheat to band and broadcast phosphorus at varying soil temperatures. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 65, 79-88.
    21. Tarkalson, D.D., Mikkelsen, R.L., 2004. Runoff phosphorus losses as related to phosphorus source, application method, and application rate on a Piedmont soil. Journal of Environmental Quality 33, 1424–1430.
    22. van Duivenbooden, N., de Wit, C.T., van Keulen, H., 1996. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium relations in five major cereals reviewed in respect to fertilizer recommendations using simulation modeling. Fertilizer Research 44, 37-49.
    23. Wiese, M.V., 1993. Wheat and other small grains. In: Bennett, W.F. (Ed.). Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Crop Plants. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. pp. 27-33.
    24. Wright, S., Fulton, A., Munier, D., Jackson, L., 2008. Mid season nitrogen fertility management in wheat and barley. University of California Cooperative Extension Kings County. Small Grain News 5(1), 1-2.
    25. Xue, Q., Zhu, Z., Musick, J.T., Stewart, B.A., Dusek, D.A., 2003. Root growth and water uptake in winter wheat under deficit irrigation. Plant & Soil 257, 151–161.
    TOP OF PAGE

    Potassium

    1. Brittan, K.L., 2003. 2003 Yolo / Solano / Sacramento wheat and barley production.
    2. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
    3. Chuan, L., He, P., Jin, J., Li, S., Grant, C., Xu, X., Qiu, S., Zhao, S., Zhou, W., 2013. Estimating nutrient uptake requirements for wheat in China. Field Crops Research 146, 96–104.
    4. Fageria, N.K., Barbosa Filho, M.P., Moreira, A., Guimarães, C.M., 2009. Foliar fertilization of crop plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition 32, 1044-1064.
    5. Francois, L.E., Maas, E.V., Donovan, T.J., Youngs, V.L., 1986. Effect of salinity on grain yield and quality, vegetative growth, and germination of semi-dwarf and durum wheat. Agronomy Journal 78, 1053-1058.
    6. Halvorson, AD., Alley, M.M., Murphy, L.S., 1987. Nutrient requirements and fertilizer use. In: Heyne, E.G. (Ed.). Wheat and Wheat Improvement. Agronomy Monographs 13. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America. Madison, WI. pp. 345-383.
    7. Jones Jr., J.B., 1998. Field sampling procedures for conducting a plant analysis. In: Kalra, Y.P. (Ed.). Handbook of Reference Methods for Plant Analysis. CRC Press, Boca Raton. pp. 25-35.
    8. Mortvedt, J.J., 1976. Band fertilizer placement – How much and how close? Fertilizer Solutions 20, 90-96.
    9. Munier, D., Kearney, T., Pettygrove, G.S., Brittan, K., Mathews, M., Jackson, L., 2006. Fertilization of small grains. In: UC ANR (Ed.). Small Grain Production Manual. ANR Publication 8208.
    10. Randall, G.W., Hoeft, R.G., 1988. Placement methods for improved efficiency of P and K fertilizers: A review. Journal of Production Agriculture 1, 70-78.
    11. Reisenauer, H.M., Quick, J., Voss, R.E., 1976. Soil test interpretive guides. In: Reisenauer, H.M. (Ed.). Soil and Plant-Tissue Testing in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1879. pp. 38-40.
    12. Snowball, K., Robson A.D., 1991. Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Wheat - A Guide for Field Identification . CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F.
    13. van Duivenbooden, N., de Wit, C.T., van Keulen, H., 1996. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium relations in five major cereals reviewed in respect to fertilizer recommendations using simulation modeling. Fertilizer Research 44, 37-49.
    14. Waldren, R.P., Flowerday, A.D., 1979. Growth stages and distribution of dry matter, N, P, and K in winter wheat. Agronomy Journal 71, 391-397.
    15. Wiese, M.V., 1993. Wheat and other small grains. In: Bennett, W.F. (Ed.). Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Crop Plants. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. pp. 27-33.
    16. Wright, S., Fulton, A., Munier, D., Jackson, L., 2008. Mid season nitrogen fertility management in wheat and barley. University of California Cooperative Extension Kings County. Small Grain News 5(1), 1-2.
    17. Xue, Q., Zhu, Z., Musick, J.T., Stewart, B.A., Dusek, D.A., 2003. Root growth and water uptake in winter wheat under deficit irrigation. Plant & Soil 257, 151–161.
    TOP OF PAGE